Ivan Lavrentievich Paul ( Johann Ludwig von Poll ; 1768-1840) - Russian regimental and brigade commander, hero of the Patriotic War of 1812 , major general of the Russian Imperial Army .
|Ivan Lavrentievich Paul|
Portrait of Ivan Lavrentievich Paul
workshop  of George Dow .
State Hermitage Museum
( Saint Petersburg )
|Date of Birth||1768|
|Place of Birth|
|Date of death||April 19, 1840|
|A place of death||Kiev province |
|Years of service||1781-1821|
|Commanded||Novorossiysk 3rd Dragoon Regiment |
Kargopolsky 5th Dragoon Regiment
2nd Brigade of the 1st Dragoon Division
|Battles / wars|
Polish-Lithuanian uprising of 1794 :
Russian-Austro-French war of 1805
|Awards and prizes|
- 1 Early years
- 2 Military service
- 2.1 Uprising Kosciuszko
- 2.2 Regimental commander
- 2.2.1 World War 1812
- 2.2.2 War of the Sixth Coalition
- 3 Retired
- 4 Portrait in the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace
- 5 notes
- 6 Literature
The early years
He came from an old German noble family who moved to the island of Ezel at the beginning of the 17th century, and was the son of a landrichter in the Ezel province. Born in 1768.
In February 1781 he entered the Russian service as a fourier in the Preobrazhensky Life Guards Regiment , but in 1783 he was transferred to the Kexholm Life Guards  regiment as a warrant officer and on January 1, 1786 he was promoted to lieutenant with transfer to the Kiev Grenadier Regiment . He was transferred to the Tauride Grenadier Regiment on November 19, 1790 with production as captains. After four years of service, on January 10, 1794 he was transferred to the Seversky Carabinieri Regiment  .
Rise of Kosciuszko
In 1794 he participated in a campaign against the Polish rebels during the Polish-Lithuanian uprising of 1794 and on May 28 for the first time was in a battle at the town of Helme ; then he was in a two-day - July 22 and 23 - business under Slonim . For the differences in this campaign, it was made in second-majors , and on November 29, 1796 it was renamed into majors . He was promoted to lieutenant colonel on October 11, 1799, and on October 15, 1800, to colonel .
Colonel Paul was transferred to the newly formed Novorossiysk Dragoon Regiment on May 21, 1803, with whom he fought abroad in September 1805 to join the Kutuzov army, which, together with the Austrians, was against the French, but soon returned to Russia after the cessation of hostilities.
After the Peace of Tilsit, on September 13, 1807, Paul was appointed commander of the Novorossiysk , and a few months later - the chief of the Kargopol dragoon regiment with the production of major general.  On the arrival of the 40-year-old Paul to the regiment, his subordinate - the 17-year-old future general from the cavalry Vasily Bogushevsky , had such recollections (the spelling and punctuation of the author were preserved by the publishers):
|In place of Miller, Colonel Paul was appointed regimental commander to us. This change upset everyone. Paul was a German old man - and led a modest life not to say mean. It was hard for us to get used to such a change. His wife was a simple Polish woman who was so obscene in circulation that we always blushed at her words. |
Patriotic War of 1812
Three years later, when, on the occasion of the upcoming invasion of Napoleon, three armies were formed on our western border, Paul and the Kargopol regiment entered under the command of Barclay de Tolly in the 2nd reserve cavalry corps of Baron Korf .
During Napoleon’s invasion of Russia, Paul was with the regiment in the rearguard of the Barclay de Tolly army and participated in many rearguard affairs that preceded the Battle of Borodino . Since July 1, 1812, the Kargopol Dragoon Regiment was a convoy of the Main Apartment of the 1st Army.  Under Borodin, Paul and the regiment guarded the persons of the commander in chief and commander of the 1st Army.
After Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow, the regiment, remaining in the 2nd reserve cavalry corps, served at the main apartment until October 2, when it was replaced by order of the commander-in-chief :
|<...> I prescribe the Kargopol dragoon regiment, which is now in a convoy at the main apartment, to be replaced by another. One regiment to the chief Mr. Colonel  I express my gratitude to Paul for the serviceability, which was preserved in all respects for the duties assigned to him, equal to Mr. to the headquarters and chief officers for the vigilant zeal with which they sent orders to convey the wounded from the battlefield, escorting [transport] transports among the most dangers. <...> Prince G [olenischev] -Kutuzov |
On October 7, the corps of Baron Korf, in which Paul was with his regiment, became part of the vanguard of Miloradovich .
After 2 weeks - October 22 - Miloradovich caught up with the French near Vyazma and joined the battle with them. During the battle, he ordered Paul to attack one French column. While the regiment entrusted to him, due to the excessive fatigue of the horses, slowly got over the ditches, Paul, far ahead of him, had to withstand the fire of the entire enemy column alone. His horse, struck by many bullets, fell; the cap and overcoat were shot in many places, but he himself remained unharmed and managed to sit on another horse. Meanwhile, the Kargopolites arrived, and the French, unable to withstand the attack, laid down their arms.
Continuing to crush the enemy, Miloradovich appeared on November 4 at the Red , on the flank of the Napoleonic army, and attacked the Italian vice-king met here. During the battle, Paul took with his dragoons "batteries" of 4 guns.  The Kargopol regiment, together with 2 squadrons of Pskov dragoons, destroyed the French latnik regiment. In the next two days of the battle of Krasnensky - November 5 and 6 - Paul led the regiment on the attack more than once, and for all these differences he was awarded the Order of St. George of the 3rd class .
Sixth Coalition War
Then he pursued the enemy until the Neman and on January 1, 1813 crossed the border. Constantly in the corps of Miloradovich, he participated with him in many battles in April and May: near Dresden , Bischofswerd , Bauzen , Reichenbach , Görlitz, Lebau and Jaur. For distinction he received the Order of St. Vladimir of the 3rd degree and the Prussian Order of Merit ( Order of Pour le Mérite ).
After the conclusion of the Poischwitz armistice, Paul and his regiment joined the corps of Count Langeron of the Silesian Army Blucher. At the end of the armistice, Paul fought against the Polish corps of Prince Ponyatovsky for three days — August 27–29, and from September 1 to 3 — at the village of Nieder-Puck, where he went on the attack more than once, for which he received the Vladimir Cross 3- 1st degree and the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle 2nd degree .
In the period from October 4 to 7, he participated in the battles near Leipzig and was awarded royal favor. Pursuing the remains of a broken Napoleonic army, he crossed the Rhine in the second half of December and spent most of January 1814 under the Mainz fortress. In February, he was ordered to go from the shores of the Rhine to join the Count Langeron’s corps.
On March 13, in the famous battle near Fer-Champenoise , he, already commanding a brigade,  went around the enemy’s right wing with the Chernigov dragoon and two Cossack regiments, attacked him, captured a huge convoy and captured the French battalion covering the convoy. After that, the Kargopol and Novorossiysk dragoons rushed to the eyes of the emperor Alexander on one French column, but she, without waiting for the attack, laid down her arms. Paul was awarded the Annens Ribbon for the Battle of Champenois .
During the Battle of Paris on March 18, he was in a separate detachment of General Emanuel, operating at Nelya. At the end of hostilities, he was appointed commandant in Frankfurt, in August he was entrusted with commanding the 2nd Brigade of the 1st Dragoon Division ( Novorossiysk Dragoon Regiment and Mitava Dragoon Regiment ) returning to Russia. September 1, 1814 ceased to be the chief of the Kargopol regiment.
In the spring of 1815, when the unexpected appearance of Napoleon in France forced the emperor Alexander to again move his army abroad, Paul went on a campaign with the brigade. After receiving news of the victory at the Battle of Waterloo, he deployed a brigade from Dresden back to Russia.
On January 4, 1817, Paul was transferred by the brigadier commander to the 4th Dragoon division, but soon home circumstances forced him to leave his favorite military field. On December 29, 1821 he was dismissed from service with a uniform and a full pay pension. The last years of his life, Paul spent in the estate of Chernysha , Boguslavsky district, Kiev province.
Portrait at the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace
Potret Fields is located in the geometric center of the “Barclay de Tolly Walls” of the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace - in the 3rd (central) horizontal row is the 9th portrait when counting from the portrait of Barclay, or the 8th - when counting from the wall. [eleven]
- State Hermitage Museum. Western European painting. Catalog / Ed. V. F. Levinson-Lessing; ed. A. E. Krol , K. M. Semenova. - 2nd edition, revised and supplemented. - L .: Art, 1981. - T. 2. - P. 259, cat. No 7993. - 360 p.
- Late - Grenadier of Emperor Franz I.
- subsequently - Seversky Dragoon and Horse Jaegers
- see the History of the Novorossiysk Dragoon Regiment.
- Bogushevsky V. D. Notes of General V. D. Bogushevsky // Voronezh nobility in World War II. M., 1912.S. 233.
- See the order of General Ermolov for this date.
- do not mean the rank, but "the position of regiment commander" - Paul has been in the rank of major general since 1808
- October 1812, 2. - from the supplement to Order No. 39 of M. I. Kutuzov with the announcement of thanks to Colonel I. L. Pol. Published by: M.I. Kutuzov. Collection of documents. T. IV. Part 1. M., 1954. S. 427. - http://wardoc.ru/newwin/show.htm?what=1132
- According to all the same Vasily Bogushevsky, it was the work of his 1st platoon of the 1st squadron of Major Geld - he, Bogushevsky, went to deliver guns to Miloradovich’s headquarters, but did not receive receipts, allegedly “out of ignorance”. Why the guns were simply recorded "on the regiment" - and George 3rd degree received Paul for all.
- History of the Novorossiysk Dragoon Regiment. S. 51.
- Interactive plan of the Winter Palace Military Gallery
- Dictionary of Russian generals, participants in the hostilities against the army of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1812-1815. // Russian archive. The history of the Fatherland in the evidence and documents of the XVIII — XX centuries. : Collection. - M .: TRITE studio N. Mikhalkova , 1996. - T. VII . - S. 519 . - ISSN 0869-20011 . (Comm. A. A. Podmazo )