Tibetan language ( Tib. བོད་ སྐད་ , Wiley : bod skad , Tib. Pinyin : phökä ' , transl . Phyo-ke ) - the language of Tibet . It is widespread in the Tibet Autonomous Region and some other areas of the PRC , as well as in India , Nepal , Bhutan and Pakistan (Baltic and Purig dialects). The number of Tibetan speakers is about 6 million. It belongs to the Tibetan-Burmese subfamily in the Sino-Tibetan language family .
|Self name||བོད་ སྐད་ [pʰøkɛʔ]|
|Country||China , India , Nepal , Bhutan , Pakistan|
|Regions||Tibet , Kashmir|
|Total number of speakers||6 150 000|
|Category||Languages of Eurasia|
|GOST 7.75–97||tib 680|
|ISO 639-2||tib (B); bod (T)|
|ISO 639-3||bod |
The emergence of the literary Tibetan language is associated with the appearance of writing (the oldest monument is an inscription in Samye Monastery, the 7th century) and the penetration of Buddhism into Tibet. The literary language was formed during translations of canonical literature from Sanskrit ( Tripitaki translation, VIII century), later it was developed in rich literature: historical (Works of Bud , XIV century), religious ( Tsongkhapa , XIV-XV century), fiction (verses by Milarepa , XI —XII century, Dalai Lama VI , XVII century).
The modern literary Tibetan language has preserved traditional spelling from ancient times, the grammar has changed little, innovations relate mainly to vocabulary.
The language uses Tibetan writing , genetically going back to Brahmi writing (according to some sources - gupta) .
By analogy with the Chinese language in the Tibetan syllable, one can distinguish the initials and finals . The final, in turn, is divided into a central and a terminal.
Initials have about 36 phonetic options and over 200 graphic options.
Centrals (vowels) - up to 7 vowels (Parfionovich singled out up to 26), in a letter transmitted using four vowels (diacritics) (" yang ")
Terminals (" jejug " and " yangjug ") - 9 phonetic options and 16 graphic.
Structurally, a syllable is distinguished by a root letter (“ mingzhi ”) around which “suffixes” (“jejug” and “yangjug”), a signature letter (“ tag ”), “prefix” (“ ngyongjug ”) and “ extension ”(“ go ”). Taking into account all the laws of compatibility of Tibetan letters, the formation of about 15 thousand combinations is possible. The order of complication of the Tibetan syllable is the basis of the order of arrangement of words in the dictionary.
Tibetan refers to languages with an ergative system .
Phrases are characterized by the structure of SOV .
The three main dialects are Kham (southeast), Lhassa (central) and Amdo (northeast).
- Tibetan-Russian practical transcription
- Tibetan Pinyin
- Yeshke, Henry Augustus . "Tibetan grammar", London , 1883 .
- Choma de Körosi, Alexander Essay towards a dictionary, Tibetan and English, Calcutta , 1834 ; Budapest , 1984 .
- Choma de Körösi, Alexander Grammar of the Tibetan language, Calcutta , 1834 ; Budapest , 1984 .
- Choma de Körösi, Alexander Sanskrit-Tibetan-English vocabulary: being an edition and translation of the Mahāvyutpatti, Calcutta , 1910 , 1916 , 1944 ; Budapest , 1984 .
- Goryachev A.V., Tarasov I. Yu. Russian-Tibetan dictionary. - M .: Namchak, 2000.
- Hodge Stephen. Introduction to the classical Tibetan language / Per. from English - SPb., 1997. (Other publication: M., 2008.)