“The Maid of Pskov ” is the first opera by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov in three acts, six scenes on his own libretto based on the plot of the same name drama by Leo May . It was first staged at the Mariinsky Theater of St. Petersburg under the direction of Eduard Napravnik in 1873, and reworked by the composer in 1894 .
Sketch of the veche scene from the first production of the opera
|Plot source||Leo May - the drama "The Maid of Pskov"|
|Year of creation||1871 - 1872 , revised 1894|
|First production||January 1 (13), 1873|
|First Place||Petersburg , Mariinsky Theater|
The one-act opera The Boyar Vera Sheloga , written by the composer in 1898, can also be a prologue to the opera Pskovityanka.
- Ivan the Terrible - bass;
- Prince Tokmakov, posadnik in Pskov - bass;
- Olga, his adopted daughter is a soprano;
- Boyarin Matuta - tenor;
- Boyar Stepanida Matuta (Stesha) - soprano;
- Mihailo Tucha, the clerical son is a tenor;
- Prince Vyazemsky - bass;
- Bomelius , the royal healer is also bass;
- Yushko Velebin, a messenger from Novgorod - bass
- Vlasyevna, mother - mezzo-soprano;
- Perfilievna, mother is also mezzo-soprano.
Boyars, guardsmen, people.
The action takes place in Pskov and its environs in 1570 .
The first picture . A garden near the house of Prince Tokmakov, the tsar's governor and a power-law posadnik in Pskov . Moms Vlasyevna and Perfilyevna are talking about the terrible tsar of Moscow, Ivan Vasilyevich, who defeated the Novgorod freemen. The girls play torches in which Tokmakov’s adopted daughter, Olga, whispering with Stesha’s friend about a love affair with the fellow-son, Mikhail Tucha, does not participate. Vlasyevna tells the girls a fairy tale, but the whistling of Clouds is heard. Everyone goes to the tower. Olga goes secretly on a date to Tuche. Between them there is a tender scene. Hearing the noise of approaching steps, Cloud climbs over the fence, and Olga hides in the bushes. Prince Tokmakov enters with an old boyar Matuta, wooing Olga. Tokmakov tells Matute that Olga is his adoptive and not his own daughter, that her mother is the noblewoman Vera Sheloga, and that he does not know her father. A ringing is heard convening at the veche . Olga is shocked by the news that she overheard.
The second picture . Square in Pskov. People come running. On the square, Novgorod messenger Yushka Velebin, he talks about the fact that Novgorod was taken, and that Tsar Ivan the Terrible is approaching Pskov. The people are confused. Tokmakov and Matuta urge the Pskovs to humility. A cloud protests against this decision, calls for resistance and leaves with the Pskov youth (freemen) at the sounds of an old veche song. The crowd notices the weakness of the “freemen”, anticipates her death, and laments that “the formidable king has a grievous hand”.
The first picture . Large area in Pskov. At the houses - tables with bread and salt, as a sign of a humble meeting. The crowd is in fear and awaiting the arrival of the king. Olga tells Vlasyevna the family secret that she overheard. Vlasyevna foresees misfortune for Olga. The ceremonial entrance of the king opens with the cries of the people "Have mercy!"
The second picture . Room in Tokmakov’s house. Tokmakov and Matut obediently meet Ivan the Terrible. Olga treats the king, who treats her graciously, noting in her resemblance to her mother. Girls praise the king. After they leave, the tsar, after asking Tokmakov, is finally convinced that Olga is his daughter, and, shocked by the memories of his youth, he announces: “God bless Pskov!”
The first picture . The road to the Pechersky monastery , dense forest. In the forest, royal hunting. A thunderstorm begins. On the road are girls with moms. Olga lagged behind them, who started a journey to the monastery only to meet the Cloud on the way. There is a meeting of lovers. Suddenly, a cloud is attacked by the servants of Matuta. A cloud falls wounded; Olga is deprived of feelings - she is carried away by the guard Matuta in her arms, who threatens to tell Tsar Ivan about the betrayal of the Clouds.
The second picture . The royal rate near Pskov. Tsar Ivan Vasilievich alone indulges in memories. Thoughts are interrupted by the news that the royal guard seized Matuta, who was trying to abduct Olga. The king is furious and does not listen to Matuta trying to slander the Cloud. Introduce Olga. At first, Grozny is incredulous, speaks irritably to her. But then the girl's frank confession of her love for Tucha and her affectionate, soulful conversation conquer the king. The cloud, recovering from the wound, attacked the guards with his squad, he wants to free Olga. The tsar orders to shoot the freemen, and bring the Cloud to him. However, he manages to avoid captivity. From far away Olga can hear the farewell words of her beloved’s song. She runs out of the tent and falls, struck by Vyazemsky's shot at Tuche. Olga is dying. In desperation, Grozny leans over the body of his daughter. The people are crying about the fall of the great Pskov.
- In the work on the libretto for the opera, P.I. Tchaikovsky rendered some help to Rimsky-Korsakov, who sent Korsakov a ready-made libretto based on the May drama, from which Rimsky-Korsakov decided to use some fragments in the third act of his libretto.
- The texts of two female choirs from the third act were written by M.P. Mussorgsky .
- Pskovityanka was the first opera at the Bolshoi Theater , directed by Evgeny Svetlanov in 1954 , staging the same opera in 1999 was Svetlanov's last work in the theater  .
- January 1, 1873 - Mariinsky Theater , conductor Eduard Napravnik ;
- Ivan the Terrible - Osip Petrov ;
- Tokmakov - Ivan Melnikov ;
- Matuta - Vasiliev 2nd ;
- Cloud - Orlov;
- Olga - Julia Platonova ;
- Vlasyevna - Maria Leonova ;
- Vyazemsky - Sobolev.
- April 6, 1895 - 3rd edition, in St. Petersburg at the Panaevsky Theater by the forces of participants of the St. Petersburg Society of Muses. meetings; in the party of Tokmakov - Mikhail Lunacharsky .
- 1896 - Moscow private Russian opera (conductor A.A. Bernardi, artists Vasnetsov and Konstantin Korovin ; Ivan the Terrible - Fedor Chaliapin ).
- 1901 - The Bolshoi Theater, along with music-dramas. prologue “Boyar Vera Sheloga” (conductor Ippolit Altani ; Ivan the Terrible - Fedor Chaliapin)
- 1903 - Mariinsky Theater with the prologue “Boyar Vera Sheloga” (conductor Eduard Napravnik, director Romuald Vasilevsky , artist Alexander Golovin ; Ivan the Terrible - Fedor Chaliapin).
- May 11, 1909 - the first foreign performance of a tour in Paris at the Chatelet Theater performed by Russian artists. Conductor Nikolai Cherepnin , production by Alexander Sanin , choirmaster Ulrich Avranek ;
- Ivan the Terrible - Fedor Chaliapin;
- Olga - Lidia Lipkovskaya ;
- Cloud - Vasily Damaev ;
- Matuta - Alexander Davydov ;
- Tokmakov - Vladimir Kastorsky ;
- Yushko - Vasily Sharonov ;
- Nanny - Elizabeth Petrenko .
Other foreign productions: Milan (1912), London (1913, in Russian; 1917), Manchester (1918), Krefeld (1924), Barcelona (1927, in Russian), Birmingham (1955), Brussels ( 1956), Palermo (1959).
On the Soviet stage:
- October 4, 1919 - Petrograd Akad. Opera and Ballet Theater (scenic reopening of Chaliapin, conductor Cooper , artistic director. Golovin ; Ivan the Terrible - Chaliapin ).
- 1932 - Bolshoi Theater (conductor Kubatsky , dir. Baratov , thin. Fedorovsky );
- 1933 - Leningrad. opera and ballet theater with the prologue “Boyar Vera Sheloga” (conductor Pokhitonov , director. Cabinet , art. Golovin ; Ivan the Terrible - Reisen , Olga - Talonkina , Tokmakov - Pleshakov , Matuta - Kabanov , Cloud - Nelepp , Nadezhda - Smirnova, Vera Sheloga - Pavlovskaya);
- 1945 - Bolshoi Theater (conductor Sakharov , dir. Baratov , artistic director Fedorovsky , choirmaster Rybnov and Lukovnikov);
- 1952 - Bolshoi Theater
- 1952 - Theater of Opera and Ballet. Kirova (conductor Yeltsin , dir. Sokovnin , artistic director. Fedorovsky , hor. Mikhailov).
Among the performers on the Russian and Soviet stage:
- Alexander Pirogov , Ivan Yashugin (Ivan the Terrible);
- Stepan Trezvinsky , Konstantin Serebryakov (Tokmakov);
- Assumption, Grigory Ugrinovich (Matuta);
- Efrosinia Kuza , Glafira Zhukovskaya , Olga Kashevarova (Olga);
- Lavrentiy Donskoy , Ivan Ershov (Cloud)
|Year||Organization||Conductor||Soloists||Record Label and Catalog Number||Notes|
|1947||Bolshoi Theater Choir and Orchestra||Semyon Sakharov||Ivan the Terrible - Alexander Pirogov , Tokmakov - Nikolai Schegolkov , Matuta - Alexander Peregudov , Vyazemsky - Mikhail Solovyov , Mikhailo Tucha - George Nelepp , Yushko Velebin - Ivan Skobtsov , Olga - Elena Shumilova , Stepanida - Natalya Sokolova , Vlasyevna - Maria Levina , Perfil Margarita Shervinskaya , Bomeliy - Ivan Manshavin||Melody|
D 019333-8 (1967)
|1968||Teatro verdi di trieste||Hubad itself||Ivan the Terrible - Boris Hristov , Tokmakov - Lorenzo Gaetani, Matuta - Giuseppe Botta, Mikhailo Tucha - Lajosh Kozma, Olga - Radmila Tokmakova, Stepanida - Daniela Mazzukato-Meneghini||Gala|
GL 100.739 (2004)
|1969||Roman opera house||Thomas Shippers||Ivan the Terrible - Boris Hristov , Tokmakov - Lorenzo Gaetani, Matuta - Aldo Bertochchi, Mikhailo Tucha - Ruggiero Bondino, Olga - Nicoletta Panni||Great opera performances|
|1994||Mariinsky Theater Choir and Orchestra||Valery Gergiev||Ivan the Terrible - Vladimir Ognovenko , Tokmakov - Gennady Bezzubenkov , Matuta - Nikolai Gassiev , Mikhailo Tucha - Vladimir Galuzin , Olga - Galina Gorchakova , Vlasyevna - Lyudmila Filatova||Philips|
|Year||Organization||Conductor||Soloists||Manufacturer and Part Number||Notes|
|1969||USSR Radio and Television|| (inaccessible link)|
|1994||Ostankino (broadcasting company)|| (inaccessible link)|
|1999||Bolshoi Theater Choir and Orchestra||Evgeny Svetlanov||Ivan the Terrible - Vyacheslav Pochapsky , Tokmakov - Leonid Zimnenko, Matuta - Oleg Biktimirov , Mikhailo Tucha - Pavel Kudryavchenko , Olga - Maria Gavrilova , Stepanida - Galina Chernoba , Vlasyevna - Galina Borisova , Perfilyevna - Elena Novak||House of Opera DVDCC 843|