The State Natural Biosphere Reserve “Ubsunurskaya Kotlovinina” is a reserve in the Republic of Tyva of the Russian Federation. The reserve is the Russian part of the Ubsunurskaya Hollow, a transboundary Russian-Mongolian UNESCO World Heritage site (total area 898,064 ha)  .
|IUCN Category Ia (Strict Nature Reserve)|
|Founding date||January 24, 1993|
Location of areas of the reserve on the territory of the Republic of Tyva
The reserve is located in the Ubsunursky hollow near the salt lake Ubsu-Nur in Southern Siberia .
The Ubsunur Hollow State Nature Reserve was established on January 24, 1993 . In 1997, the reserve was granted biosphere status.
The area of the reserve is 323 198.4 ha  . The territory consists of 9 separate sections (clusters):
- Aryskannig - 15000 ha (Geographical coordinates: 50 ° 08 '- 50 ° 54' NL and 94 ° 25 '- 94 ° 38' EH.)
- Kara-Khol - 122451 ha
- Mongun-Taiga - 15890 hectares (Geographical coordinates: 50 ° 45 - 50 ° 29 СШ, 94 ° 23 - 95 ° 35 ВД.)
- Oruku-Shinaa - 28,750 ha
- Ular - 18,000 ha (Geographical coordinates: 50 ° 18 '- 50 ° 31' NL and 92 ° 20 '- 95 ° 50' EH.)
- Ubsu-Nur - 4490 ha (Geographical coordinates: 48 ° 15 '- 51 ° 09' NL and 90 ° 40 '- 98 ° 50' EH.)
- Khan-Deer - 1,12917.4 hectares (Geographical coordinates: 51 ° 39 '- 52 ° 15' NL, 90 ° 00 '- 92 ° 15' EH.)
- Zugeher-Els - 4900 hectares (Geographical coordinates: 49 ° 45 '- 50 ° 29' NL and 94 ° 45 '- 95 ° 35' EH.)
- Yamaalyg - 800 ha
The climate is continental . In the annual course, the lowest average temperature falls in January. The hottest month is July. The annual precipitation in the Ubsunur Basin proper is from 150 mm, in the mountains it is much higher. The main unique feature of the basin is the presence of almost all landscapes of the temperate belt of the Earth. Here are the northernmost semi-deserts in Eurasia (at 50 ° N lat.). It is a member of the association of nature reserves and national parks of the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion.
The Ubsunur Basin was nominated for inclusion in the second World Heritage List of Russia (the first were the virgin forests of the Komi ) in 1995 as one of the largest intact watersheds in Central Asia with up to 40,000 undiscovered barrows and other archaeological sites of nomadic tribes such as Scythians ancient Türks and Huns  . The nomination was represented by a combination of the Republic of Tyva and Mongolia , and included 75,000 km 2 of forests and steppes and associated cultural and natural heritage.
The reserve "Ubsunurskaya hollow" was awarded the international status of the biosphere reserve in 1998 , as a step towards the protection of Siberian pine and Siberian spruce  .
The reserve's location provides the most fascinating ecological habitat in Central Asia due to the mixing of complex ecosystems. The reserve area is 1,068,853.5 ha (10,688.535 km²)  . This area includes glaciers , taiga , deserts , alpine tundra , alpine meadows , and huge mountain taiga areas. There are also forest steppes , treeless steppes, semi-arid deserts, and sand dunes . This is a beautiful and stunningly diverse natural habitat created by the interaction of Euro-Siberian and Central Asian-Mongol flora and fauna.
On the territory of the reserve 359 bird species are registered. In the fauna of the reserve there are about 80 species of mammals . The main species are the inhabitants of the mountains, taiga and tundra, such as the irbis , the Altai snow mountain valley , the red deer , the lynx and the wolverine . Steppe species - Mongolian lark , demoiselle crane , gopher , bustard and gerbil . The reserve is a protected area, and many species that have disappeared elsewhere can be found here.
Since 2003, seven plots (clusters) of the reserve are part of the UNESCO-listed Ubsunur Hollow facility No. 769rev ( Russia - Mongolia ).
- Map sheet M-45-XII Kara-Khol . Scale: 1: 200 000. Specify the date of issue / state of the area .
- UNESCO. World Heritage List. Uvs Nuur Basin.
- Reserve site. Clusters of the reserve “Ubsunurskaya hollow” (Inaccessible link) . The appeal date is March 9, 2011. Archived July 26, 2009.
- Russia's First World Heritage Site (inaccessible link) . The appeal date was December 31, 2006. Archived September 25, 2011.
- Southern Siberia Hotspot in the Taiga (not available link) . Tiaga News (1998). The appeal date is February 5, 2008. Archived August 16, 2000.
- Ubsunur Basin, Russia (Tuva) and Mongolia (Not available link) . United Nations Environment. The appeal date is February 5, 2008. Archived September 29, 2007.
- S. Kurbatskaya. Dynamics of the ecosystems of the steppes and semi-deserts of the Ubsunur depression // Global monitoring and the Ubsunur depression: tr. IV Intern. symposium. - M., 1996. - pp. 23-26.
- Kurbatskaya S.S. Steppe ecosystems of the Ubsunur depression - a natural biosphere laboratory. Functional ecology method. - Kyzyl: RIO TU, 2001. - 104 p.