Russian-Swedish wars - military conflicts between Russia and Sweden .
|1142–1164||First Swedish Crusade||Novgorod Republic|
|1187||Campaign to the capital Sigtuna||Novgorod Republic|
|1240-1250||Second Swedish Crusade||Novgorod Republic|
|1293-1295||Third Swedish Crusade||Not|
|1311-1323||Swedish-Novgorod war||Novgorod Republic|
|1348-1349||Fourth Swedish Crusade||Novgorod Republic|
|1375-1396||Minor border armed conflicts||Not|
|1479-1482||Russian-Swedish war||Grand Duchy of Moscow|
|1570-1583||Livonian war||Sweden and the Commonwealth|
|1700-1721||Great Northern War||Russia|
- 1142 - 1164 - repeated attempts by the Swedes to capture Ladoga were repelled by the Novgorod forces. (semi-legendary First Swedish Crusade )
- 1187 - The Swedish capital Sigtuna was captured and destroyed by Karelian - Novgorod troops.
- Second Swedish Crusade :
- July 15, 1240 - Battle of the Neva , defeat of the Swedish troops by Alexander Nevsky .
- 1246 - 1250 - military campaigns of the Swedish troops led by Jarl Birger II
- The third Swedish crusade : 1293 - 1295 - military campaigns of the Swedish troops on the Karelian Isthmus and Karelia . The capture of part of the Karelian Isthmus by the Swedes, the foundation of the Vyborg fortress, the capture of the Korela fortress (liberated in 1322 ). The foundation of the Landskrona fortress on the Neva (destroyed by Novgorod forces in 1301 ).
- 1311 - 1323 - a series of mutual military campaigns of Russian and Swedish troops. The border is fixed by the Orekhov peace treaty ( August 12, 1323 ).
- 1348 - 1349 - 4th Crusade led by King Magnus VII . In August 1348, Oreshek fortress was captured (recaptured in February 1349). In the summer of 1351 the return campaign of Novgorod , the siege of Vyborg . Confirmation of the Orekhov peace treaty .
- 1375 - 1396 - minor cross-border armed conflicts, the loss of the province of Esterbotnia by Novgorod .
- 1397 - Sweden joins the Kalmar Union . From 1397 to 1495, there was not a single prolonged military conflict between Sweden and Novgorod. However, minor raids on both sides continue: in the 1410s there was still a direct waterway through the Isthmus to Käkisalmi , or Korele , which for Novgorod was the most important stronghold in the north of Lake Ladoga . On this way there was a shopping center and Tiuru fortress ( Tiversk ), which was an outpost of Kyakisalmi. In 1411, the Swedes took possession of it, and Novgorod in revenge ravaged the outskirts of Vyborg, but then the matter was limited to this. In 1468 , an agreement was signed in Vyborg on the extension of the Orekhov peace .
- 1479 - 1482 - Novgorod land was forcibly attached to the Principality of Moscow , due to the change of power, the situation on the border was destabilized for some time, numerous cross-border conflicts and “punitive expeditions” on both sides of the border took place over three years. In 1483, in connection with the accession to the throne of the King of Denmark (and Sweden), Hans I signed another Russian-Swedish truce (extended in 1487 for another 5 years).
- 1493 - in connection with the aggravation of Danish-Swedish relations in Narva , a Russian-Danish treaty was concluded against Sweden. The contract provided for the return of all lost after 1323 Novgorod lands , but practically it was not implemented.
- 1495 - 1497 - Russian-Swedish war for Western Karelia . In March 1497 , a truce was concluded in Novgorod .
- March 25, 1510 - an agreement was signed in Novgorod to extend the Orekhov peace for another 60 years.
- 1554 - 1557 - the first Russian-Swedish war of the XVI century . In the spring of 1557, an agreement was signed to restore peace for 40 years.
- 1570 - 1583 - Russian-Swedish war for the Livonian inheritance .
- 1590 - 1595 - Russian-Swedish war . In May 1595, the Tyavzinsky peace treaty was concluded .
- 1610 - 1613 - the campaign of Jacob Delagardi , the occupation of Karelian land , Izhora land , Novgorod .
- 1614 - 1617 - Russian-Swedish three-year war . Completed by the signing of the Stolbovsky Peace Treaty on February 27, 1617 .
- 1656 - 1658 - Russian-Swedish war 1656-1658 .
- 1700 - 1721 - Northern War . Completed by signing on August 30 ( September 10 ) 1721 Nistadt Peace Treaty .
- 1741 - 1743 - Russian-Swedish war 1741-1743 .
- 1788 - 1790 - Russian-Swedish war of 1788-1790 .
- 1808 - 1809 - Russian-Swedish war 1808-1809 .
The beginning of the wars between Sweden and Russia
Wars with Novgorod
The beginning of the wars between Sweden and Russia dates back to the middle of the XIII century . At that time, the coast of the Gulf of Finland was controversial, which both Novgorodians and Swedes sought to seize.
In 1187, the Russians struck a strong blow to the Swedes during a campaign in the Swedish capital Sigtuna . Flotilla of ships with Novgorod, Izhora and Karelian warriors secretly walked along Swedish skerries to Sigtuna. The capital of the Swedes was stormed and burned.
In 1240, the Swedish jarl Birger , urged by the pope, embarked on a crusade against Russia and entered the Neva on ships. Prince of Novgorod Alexander Yaroslavich , with a small squad, attacked him by surprise and defeated him, for which he received the nickname Nevsky.
In 1283, the Swedes entered the Neva into Lake Ladoga , killed the Novgorodians - the Obonezh merchants, and repeated these attacks in the following years; but their attempts to gain a foothold on the banks of the Neva were not successful.
In 1293, the Swedes founded Vyborg and successfully fought off the Novgorod campaign that followed in the winter. In 1295, the Koreans were captured by the Swedes, but this time the Novgorodians managed to return the city.
In 1300, one of the largest campaigns in Russia took place. The Swedes tried to cut Novgorod from the sea, having built a powerful fortress Landskrona on the Neva in the mouth of the Okhta. In autumn, the main forces of the Swedes left, leaving a garrison in the fortress. In May 1301, a Russian army led by Grand Duke Andrei Alexandrovich destroyed Landskrona .
In 1311, the Novgorodians made a trip to Finland ( Ym ), in response, the Swedes in 1313 burned Ladoga . In 1314, Korela rebelled against the Novgorodians and called on the Swedes, but in the same year it was pacified, and the Swedes were killed. In 1318, the Novgorodians took Abo and in 1322 placed the fortified city of Oreshek at the source of the Neva from Lake Ladoga. Several times peace treaties were concluded between the warring parties, but they were not respected for long.
In the 20s. XIV century Prince Yuri Danilovich clears the northern borders near campaigns, places the city on the Neva on Orekhovy Island and concludes a profitable peace with the Swedish king Magnus. [one]
In 1348, the Swedish king Magnus Ericsson, breaking the treaty, undertook a major campaign against the Russians; he took Oreshek and forcibly converted the inhabitants to Catholicism, but the combined forces of Novgorodians and Muscovites repelled the onslaught of the Swedes and devastated the surroundings of Vyborg , having discouraged Magnus from continuing to fight the Russians.
In 1392 and 1411, hostilities again took place. Novgorodians fought with the Swedes in Zavolochye , on the shores of the White Sea (for example, in 1445 ) .
Wars with the Russian Empire
Wars with the Swedes continued after the accession of Novgorod to Moscow.
In 1496, Russia organized the first naval expedition against Sweden. The Russian “ship's army” rounded the White and Barents Seas and successfully attacked the possessions of Sweden in the north of the Scandinavian Peninsula, reaching the Baltic coast  . In 1496, John III made an alliance with the Danish king John against the Swedish rulers of Sturov and sent three governors to besiege Vyborg; Russians devastated the country, but could not take the city. The following year, a new Russian army invaded Finland, devastated it to Tavastgus and won a brilliant victory over the Swedes, while another army went by sea to Kadnia and brought Russian citizenship to the inhabitants of the coast of Limenga. In the same year, Svant Stur appeared at the mouth of the Narova River and took the newly-built Ivangorod , where his entire population was exterminated  ; the Swedes, however, soon left their conquest, and the war ended after the Danish king received the Swedish throne.
Under Basil III , a peace treaty for 60 years, confirmed in 1513 and 1524, was concluded with Sweden in 1508 .
In 1554 , under John the Terrible , a war broke out with Sweden over border disputes, as well as over the discontent of the Swedish king Gustav Vasa , that Sweden’s relations with the Russian kingdom did not occur directly with Moscow, but through Novgorod governors, which the king considered for humiliating oneself. The Swedes unsuccessfully besieged Oreshek , and the Russians - Vyborg . Not receiving the promised Polish and Livonian help, Gustav asked for peace; in the peace treaty, it was decided on mutual free trade between both states and on free passage through them to other lands. Further wars of John with the Swedes were due to the possession of Livonia, which was claimed by the Poles, Swedes and Russians.
In 1579, the Swedes invaded the Korel and Izhora lands , ruined them greatly, when taking Korela ( Kexholm ) in November 1580 , they destroyed all its Russian inhabitants, 2 thousand people  ; in Livonia, the Swedes occupied Gapsal , Narva, where the entire Russian population was destroyed, 7 thousand people  , Weissenstein . Although Prince Hvorostinin utterly defeated the Swedes in Votskaya Pyatina and the Swedes were repulsed from Oreshka with damage, however, the peace concluded in 1583 was disadvantageous for the Russians: Ivangorod , Yam and Koporye went to Sweden.
Under Theodore Ioannovich, in 1590, the war with the Swedes started again more successful than the previous one: the Russians took several cities in Karelia and raided Finland. Peace was concluded in 1595 .
In troubled times, the Swedes, under the command of Delagardi , occupied Ladoga; Novgorodians called the Swedish prince to the throne and surrendered Novgorod to the Swedes. By the time of the accession of Mikhail Feodorovich, Ingermanland and part of the Novgorod lands were in the hands of the Swedes.
In 1613, the Swedes besieged Tikhvin , but were repelled; an attempt by the Russian troops to return Novgorod was unsuccessful. Further war with the Swedes came down to defending the borders: our troops avoided meeting in the field with the army of Gustavus-Adolf. In 1614, the Swedes took Gdov , in 1615 they besieged Pskov , defended by governors Morozov and Buturlin; the siege of the city was unsuccessful for the Swedes and tempered their claims. In 1617, the Stolboff Peace Treaty was concluded, according to which Russia still had to cede Ingermanland and Karelia to Sweden.
The war with Sweden under Alexei Mikhailovich arose as a result of the success of Russian weapons in Lithuania: the Swedish king Charles X , who was elected part of the population to the Polish throne (instead of Jan Casimir), also claimed the Lithuanian lands in the hands of Alexei Mikhailovich. In 1656, a detachment of Russian troops, under the command of Potemkin, besieged Noteburg and occupied Nyenshants . The army led by Alexei Trubetskoy took Derpt. A detachment of governor Pushkin entered Karelia, defeated the local forces of the Swedes, and besieged Kexholm. The main forces, led by the tsar, marched down the Dvina, stormed the fortress of Dinaburg and Kockenhausen, on August 21, the army approached Riga. Due to the absence of a blockade from the sea, the garrison received great help, which allowed on October 2 to inflict heavy losses on the sieges during the sortie. Four regiments were defeated, 17 banners were lost. On October 5, the siege was lifted. In February, the Boyar Duma decided to seek peace with Sweden. In 1657, the Swedes tried to besiege Pskov, but were repelled. In September, the Swedish army besieging Gdov was utterly defeated by Prince Khovansky. In 1658, Prince Khovansky took Yamburg and approached Narva, but the Swedes soon took Yamburg and Nyenschanz from the Russians; then a ceasefire was concluded, according to which Russia kept Kockenhausen, Marienburg , Derpt and Vyacheshnarva (near Narva).
Russian-Swedish War at Peter the Great
The Northern War was the largest in a series of Russian-Swedish wars. It lasted from 1700 to 1721 between the Swedish Empire and the coalition of North European states for the possession of the Baltic lands and ended in the defeat of Sweden  . With the end of the war in Europe, a new empire emerged, with a strong fleet and army, the Russian Empire, with its capital St. Petersburg on the coast of the Baltic Sea  .
Initially, the Northern Union declared war on Sweden, created on the initiative of the Elector of Saxony and King of Poland Augustus II . The Danish-Norwegian kingdom , headed by King Christian V , and Russia, headed by Peter I  , also entered the Northern Union.
In 1700, after a series of swift Swedish victories, the Northern Union collapsed, Denmark withdrew from the war in 1700, and Saxony - in 1706. After that, until 1709, when the Northern Union was restored, the Russian state fought against the Swedes mainly on their own. At different stages in the war also took part: on the side of Russia - Hanover , the Netherlands , Prussia ; on the side of Sweden - England (from 1707 - Great Britain ), the Ottoman Empire , Holstein . The Ukrainian Cossacks, including Zaporizhzhya Cossacks , divided and partially supported the Swedes and Turks, but mostly Russian troops  . In the course of the campaign, Russian troops succeeded in capturing Noteburg in 1702 , as a result of which St. Petersburg was founded in 1703 . In 1704, Russian troops captured Derpt and Narva . In 1708, Karl invaded Russia, but was defeated near Lesnaya , and in 1709 lost the decisive battle near Poltava , after which he fled to Turkey. In the course of a further campaign, Russian troops managed to capture the Baltic states, including Riga . At sea, the young Russian fleet won major victories in the Battle of Gangut ( 1714 ), the Ezel Battle ( 1719 ), and the Battle of Grengam ( 1720 ). In 1719, landing on the coast of Sweden followed. In 1718, Charles XII was killed under mysterious circumstances. In 1721, the new king of Sweden, Frederick I, was forced to go to peace. On August 30, 1721, the Nishtadt Peace Treaty was signed, according to which, part of Karelia to the north of Lake Ladoga departed, Ingermanland from Ladoga to Narva , Estonia with Revel , Livonia with Riga , the islands of Ezel and Dago .
The war put an end to Swedish great power and established Russia as a new power in Europe.
The Russo-Swedish War at Elizabeth Petrovna
It began during the reign of Princess Anna Leopoldovna ( 1740 - 1741 ). The Swedish king, instigated by the French government, intended to regain the provinces lost during the Northern War, but, not ready for war, gave Russia time to make peace with the Ottoman Porta .
War was declared on June 3, 1741 , but the Swedes, by the weakness of their forces, could even act defensively only with difficulty. The Russians took possession of Wilmanstrand and defeated the detachment of General Wrangel, who came to the rescue of this city (August 22). Upon accession to the throne of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna, peace negotiations were opened with Sweden, but to no avail, since the Swedish government demanded the return of all of the part of Finland conquered under Peter I. In June 1742, hostilities resumed. The Swedish troops in Finland, led by Levengaupt, everywhere had to retreat in front of the excellent Russian forces. The Russian army, under the command of Count Lassi, in August reached Helsingfors, near which was a Swedish fortified camp. Surrounding him on all sides, Lassi forced the enemy to lay down their arms.
In 1743, peace talks were reopened in the city of Abo , during which hostile actions continued, not representing anything outstanding. On June 16, 1743, a peace was concluded, according to which Sweden ceded to Russia the province of Kumenegorsk, with Neishlot , Wilmanstrand and Friedrichsgam ; the boundary was the river Kyumen .
Wed "Notes" of Prince Y. P. Shakhovsky; Schmidt Phiseldeck, Büschings Magazin zu der Rus. Geschichte seit dem Tode Kaiser Peter des Grossen "; "Ebauche pour donner une idée de la forme du gouvernement de l'Empire de Russie, par le maréchal Comte de Munich."
interwiki to this section
Russian-Swedish War under Empress Catherine II
The successes of the 2nd Turkish War alarmed the Versailles cabinet; England, dissatisfied with the establishment of armed neutrality , also wanted to halt the success of Russian weapons. Both powers began to incite neighboring sovereigns against Russia, but only the Swedish king Gustav III succumbed to their incitement. Counting on the fact that most of the Russian forces were diverted to the south, he hoped not to meet serious resistance in Finland. The armament of the Russian squadron designated for operations in the Mediterranean Sea served as an excuse for war. On June 21, 1788, a detachment of Swedish troops crossed the border, broke into the suburbs of Neyslot and began to bombard the fortress. Simultaneously with the outbreak of hostilities, the king presented the Empress with the following requirements:
- the punishment of our ambassador Count Razumovsky for his alleged machinations, which tended to violate the peace between Russia and Sweden;
- Sweden's assignment of all parts of Finland acquired under the Nistadt and Abos Treaties;
- the adoption of Sweden's mediation to conclude peace with Porta ;
- disarmament of our fleet and the return of ships that entered the Baltic Sea .
The response to this was the expulsion of the Swedish embassy from St. Petersburg . The main command over the army was entrusted to General Count V.P. Musin-Pushkin , and over the fleet to Admiral S.K. Greig . Only about 14 thousand (part of the newly recruited) managed to gather Russian troops on the Swedish border; against them stood the 36,000th enemy army, under the personal leadership of the king. Despite this inequality of power, the Swedes did not achieve decisive success anywhere; their detachment, besieging Neyshlot, was forced to retreat, and in early August 1788 the king himself, with all his troops, withdrew from the Russian borders. On July 6, a clash between the Russian fleet and the Swedish fleet commanded by the Duke of Südermanland occurred near Hohland ; the latter was forced to take refuge in the port of Sveaborg , and lost one ship. Admiral Greig sent his cruisers towards the west, which interrupted any communication between the Swedish fleet and Karlskrona.
In 1789, the Russian sailing fleet was strengthened by a rowing fleet entrusted to the authorities of Prince Nassau of Siegen ; Admiral Chichagov was appointed to the place of deceased Greig. On July 15, his squadron met, on the island of Åland, with the Swedish, which exceeded the number of ships, and withstood a very stubborn battle with her, after which the Swedes sailed to Karlskrona. On August 13, the Russian fleet won a decisive victory over the Swedish fleet at Rochensalm . There were no big battles on the dry track this year, but the Russian army, reinforced to 20 thousand, was not limited to defensive actions alone. During the summer, she managed to occupy a fairly significant part of Swedish Finland, and in August Prince Nassau-Siegen made a successful landing near Friedrichsgam.
On May 2, 1790, the Swedish fleet, under the command of the Duke of Südermanland, attacked Chichagov , who was on the Revel road, but, having lost two ships, retreated to the islands of Nargen and Wulf . The king himself led 155 rowing ships to Friedrichsham, from which part of the prince Nassau-Siegen fleet wintered. On May 4, a naval battle took place here, and the Russians were driven back to Vyborg. The squadron of Vice Admiral Cruze, who was going to join Chichagov, met on May 23 , on the longitude of Seskar Island, with the fleet of the Duke of Südermanland. After a two-day battle, the Swedes were forced to lock themselves in Vyborg Bay, where the Swedish rowing flotilla was located, and on May 26 they were surrounded by the combined squadrons of Chichagov and Kruse. Having stood for about a month in Vyborg Bay and suffering from a shortage in everything, the Swedes decided to break through the Russian fleet. On June 21 and 22, after a bloody battle, they managed to make their way into the open sea, but at the same time lost 6 ships and 4 frigates. The persecution lasted two days, and Prince Nassau-Siegen, who recklessly burst into Svenska Sund Bay, was hit by battery fire and was defeated, having lost 55 ships and up to 600 prisoners. This victory did not bring Sweden any benefit, especially since on the dry path no success against the Russian army led by Count Saltykov was won by the Swedes. A grumble began in Stockholm, and Gustav III finally decided to ask for peace. On August 3, 1790, the so-called Werelles treaty was signed, according to which both parties returned all the places occupied by the troops of one or another power in the enemy’s possessions.
See "A collection of various reports received from the commanders of the armies and fleets, St. Petersburg, 1791. "
interwiki to this section
Russian-Swedish War under Alexander I
In the summer of 1807, Alexander I and Napoleon I concluded the Tilsit Peace , ending the Russian-Prussian-French war . At the conclusion of the Tilsit peace, Alexander I offered the Swedish king Gustav IV his mediation to reconcile him with Napoleon. One of the conditions of the peace treaty was the accession of the Russian Empire to the continental blockade of Great Britain - the system of economic and political sanctions organized by Napoleon. Also, the Danish kingdom intended to join the blockade. In response, in August 1807, the United Kingdom launched an attack on the capital of the kingdom of Copenhagen and captured the entire Danish navy. Gustav IV rejected these proposals and headed for rapprochement with England, which continued to struggle with Napoleon, hostile to him. There was a gap between Russia and Great Britain - the embassies were mutually recalled, and a sluggish war began . On November 16, 1807, the Russian government again turned to the Swedish king with a proposal for assistance, but for about two months did not receive any answer. Finally, Gustav IV responded that the execution of the treaties of 1780 and 1800 cannot be started until the French occupy the harbors of the Baltic Sea. Then it became known that the Swedish king was preparing to help England in the war with Denmark , trying to win Norway from her. All these circumstances gave Emperor Alexander I an occasion to conquer Finland , in order to ensure the security of the capital from the close proximity of the hostile Russian power.
At the beginning of 1808, the Russian army (about 24 thousand) was located along the border between Friedrichsham and Neyshlot , the leadership was entrusted to Count Buxgevden . The Swedes in Finland at that time had 19 thousand troops, under the temporary command of General Klerker. The Commander-in-Chief, Count Klingspor , was still in Stockholm , where everyone hoped for a peaceful resolution of the misunderstanding: the king himself did not trust the news of the concentration of Russian troops in the Vyborg province , and the Swedish army was not transferred to martial law. Despite the fact that the war was not declared , on February 9, Russian troops crossed the border. On February 18, Earl Buxgevden entered Helsingfors ; Swedish troops took refuge in Sveaborg. On February 23, Earl Klingspor retreated to Tammerfors , ordering all troops scattered in northern Finland to pull in there. Following this, Tavastehus was occupied by Russian troops.
On February 27, Buxgevden ordered Prince Bagration to pursue Klingspor, and General Tuchkov to try to cut off his retreat; Buxgewden himself decided to embark on a siege of Sveaborg. The seizure of the island of Gotland was decisive for the successful siege of Sveaborg - the concerned Swedish government sent large fleet forces to return the island, thus depriving the defenders of Sveaborg of effective support from the sea  .
The Swedes freely moved to Bragestad , but on April 26, Sveaborg surrendered to the Russian troops. The winners got 7.5 thousand prisoners, more than 2 thousand rifles huge reserves of any kind and 110 military ships. Earlier, on March 5, the Svartholm fortress surrendered; almost at the same time, the fortified cape Gangut and the Aland Islands are occupied. In the future, success passed from one side to the other. Swedish troops enjoyed the support of the Finnish population, leading a guerrilla war against the Russian army.
On March 6 (18), 1809, the Bagration corps occupied the Aland Islands, captured more than 2 thousand prisoners, 32 guns, more than 150 ships and ships. The vanguard of the Russian troops, led by Major General J. P. Kulnev, March 7 (19) went to the coast of Sweden, took possession of the Grisselgam (now in the commune of Norrtalje ), creating an immediate threat to Stockholm . Meanwhile, the northern detachment of Russian troops, under the command of Count Shuvalov , managed to gain significant success. The Grippenberg detachment standing against him lost the city of Torneo without a fight, and then, on March 13, bypassed by the Russian Empire at the village of Kaliks , laid down his arms. Then Count Shuvalov stopped, having received news of a truce concluded on the Alands.
On March 13, 1809, a coup d'etat took place in Sweden, Gustav IV Adolf was deposed, and royal power passed into the hands of his uncle, Duke of Südermanland, and the aristocracy surrounding him.
When the Riksdag meeting in Stockholm proclaimed the Duke of Südermanland King Charles XIII , the new government was inclined to the proposal of General Count Wrede to push the Russians out of Österbotnia ; hostilities resumed, but the success of the Swedes was limited only to the seizure of several transports; their attempts to provoke a people's war against Russia failed. After a successful case for the Russians, Hernefors again concluded a truce, partly caused for the Russians by the need to provide themselves with food.
Since the Swedes stubbornly refused to cede the Aland Islands to Russia, Barclay allowed the new head of the northern detachment, Count Kamensky, to act at his discretion.
The Swedes sent two detachments against the latter: one, Sandels , was supposed to conduct an attack from the front, the other, landing, landed at the village of Ratan and attack Count Kamensky from the rear. Owing to the bold and skillful orders of the count, this enterprise ended in failure; but then, due to the almost perfect depletion of military and food supplies, Kamensky moved to Piteo, where he found a transport with bread and again moved forward to Umea. Already at the first passage to him, Sandels appeared with the authority to conclude a truce, which he could not refuse because of the insecurity of supplying his troops with everything necessary.
On September 5, 1809, a peace treaty was signed in Friedrichsham, the essential articles of which were:
- the conclusion of peace with Russia and its allies;
- the adoption of a continental blockade and the closure of Swedish harbors for the British;
- concession of all of Finland, the Aland Islands and the eastern part of West Botnia to the rivers Torneo and Muonio , into the eternal possession of Russia.
Thus, the whole of Finland departed for Russia , which marked the end of centuries-old wars between the Russian state and Sweden.
- Documentary film “Poltava battle. 300 years later. " - Russia, 2008
- The postal block released for the celebration of 300 years of the Battle of Poltava
- The formation of the territory of the Russian state
- The formation of the territory of the Russian Empire
- Military art of ancient Russia "SwordMaster
- History of Russia. Textbook, M. 2012
- Kargalov V.V. Moscow governors of the XVI — XVII centuries, M. 2002
- Solovyov S. M. The History of Russia from Ancient Times. T. 6.M. 2001.P. 873.
- Solovyov S. M. The History of Russia from Ancient Times. T. 6.M. 2001.P. 881.
- Robert Frost. The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721. - Longman, 2000 .-- S. 296-301. - 416 p. - ISBN 978-0-582-06429-4 .
- History of the Russian army. - M .: Eksmo, 2007 .-- S. 38.
- Hughes, 1998 , p. 26-27.
- Hughes, 1998 , p. 36-38.
- Bengt Hammarhjelm Gotländsk krigshistoria från Gutasagan till 1814 // 1998, 446 pages, ISBN 91-85716-81-2
- Novgorod is the first chronicle of senior and junior vodov. - M.; L., 1950
- Videkind Johan History of the ten-year Swedish-Moscow war. - M., 2000
- Russian-Swedish wars // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Russia in the Age of Peter the Great. - New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998 .-- 604 p. - ISBN 0-300-07539-1 .
- Brickner A. G. The war of Russia with Sweden in 1788-1790 on the Runivers website
- Palamar N.G. Russian-Swedish wars of the second half of the 16th century and their influence on the formation of the border of the Russian state
- The Russian-Swedish war of 1788-1790 Map articles and documents.
- Forsten G.V. Notes of the historical and philological faculty of the Imperial St. Petersburg University. The Baltic Question in the 16th and 17th Centuries (1544–1648) (in 2 parts) St. Petersburg: Printing House of V. S. Balashev and K., 1893