Didier Ratsiraka ( fr. Didier Ratsiraka ; born November 4, 1936 ) - Madagascar statesman and politician, chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council from June 15, 1975 to January 4, 1976 , president of Madagascar from January 4, 1976 to March 27, 1993 , from February 9, 1997 to July 5, 2002 .
|fr. Didier ratsiraka|
Didier Ratsiraka (center)
|Predecessor||Position approved; Gilles Andriamahazu as Chairman of the National Military Steering Committee|
|Successor||Position abolished; he himself as President of Madagascar|
|Predecessor||Position reinstated: he himself as Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council; Richard Racimandrava as President of Madagascar|
|Birth||November 4, 1936 (82 years old)|
Watumandri , Tuamasina Province
Didier Ratsiraka was born on November 4, 1936 in Vatumandri , in the province of Tuamasina in Madagascar . Personnel naval officer, studied at military schools in France. Until May 1972 - military attache in Paris . Since June 1972, he has been Minister of Foreign Affairs in the government of Gabriel Ramanancua . At this post, he first visited the USSR on an official visit  . Since February 1975 - a member of the military directory of the country.
On June 15, 1975, a coup took place in Madagascar, organized by a group of officers, in particular, the short-term future Prime Minister Joel Rakutumalala . Supported by the military, in July Ratsiraka was appointed Chairman of the newly created supreme state body of the country - the Supreme Revolutionary Council. According to the results of the national referendum on December 21, Ratsiraka became president for a 7-year term. The referendum approved the "Charter of the Malagasy Socialist Revolution" and the constitution of the Democratic Republic of Madagascar  , formed on December 30, 1975.
After coming to power, he established close contacts with the USSR . March 19, 1976 founded the party "Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution" (AREMA)  , and the National Front for the Defense of the Revolution (in 1977 ), established a one-party regime of power. At the same time, he repeatedly appealed for help to the International Monetary Fund . He repeatedly visited the USSR on an official visit and met with L. I. Brezhnev and M. S. Gorbachev  .
In 1982, he won the presidential election with 80% of the vote. In 1989, he was re-elected under suspicious circumstances, receiving 62% of the vote, which led to unrest and protests  .
On June 10, 1990, a general strike began, lasting 4 months. Under pressure from the army, the government and the opposition entered into negotiations, as a result of which an agreement was signed on October 31 to create a transitional government, prepare new presidential elections and a new constitution. As a result of the collapse of the USSR and the cessation of aid from socialist countries, a multi-party system was established in Madagascar and the process of privatization of industrial enterprises began.
On September 12, 1992, the third constitution came into force, according to which the state received its modern name - the Republic of Madagascar  . During the new presidential election in 1993, Ratsiraka in the second round on February 10 lost them to his rival Albert Zafi , with 62% of the vote.
He left for France , but in 1997 he returned and won again in the next presidential election. Having come to power, he carried out constitutional reform, which significantly strengthened the power of the president. He began to build a system of personally loyal elites. He appointed his closest friends from AREMA to governor posts (constitutional amendments turned the election of regional heads into indirect, and the party that dominated the local parliament provided for election), and relatives held high positions in business  .
Opponents of the president unsuccessfully tried to impeach him in February 1998 .
By 2001, the popularity of Ratsiraki fell. On December 16, 2001, Madagascar held a presidential election with a turnout of 67%. The Supreme Constitutional Court published the election results only on January 25, 2002 and according to the results (40% versus 46%), Ratsiraka lost to his rival, the mayor of the capital, Mark Ravalumanan , who proclaimed himself president and refused the second round of elections. However, Ratsiraki’s supporters waged an armed struggle for several months, not wanting to give up power. In addition, the governors of four of the six provinces of the country, supporting Ratsiraka, announced their intention to create an independent confederation  . In the end, the new president was able to seize the situation in the country.
On July 5, 2002, Ratsiraka with his family and loyal ministers flew to Seychelles  , and from there on July 7 he and his family arrived in Paris. The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs declined to comment on his asylum, confirming that he and his family members had “short-term entry visas into the country”  .
On August 6, 2003, he was sentenced at home to 10 years of hard labor on charges of abuse of power and theft of about $ 8 million  , but France refused to extradite him.
During the acute crisis of 2009, in August he took part in negotiations with Mark Ravalumanan , former President Albert Zafi and President of the Higher Transitional Administration of Madagascar Andri Radzuelin , who were mediated by President of Mozambique Joaquin Chissano in Maputo . One of the results of the negotiations was the abolition of the prosecution of Ratsiraki in his homeland.
November 24, 2011 returned to Madagascar, as well as his former opponents Zafi and Rawalumanan  . In 2013, he unsuccessfully tried to run for office in the presidential election (the Special Electoral Court rejected his appeal).
He has the military rank of admiral and the nickname "Red Admiral".
Nephew, Roland Ratsiraka, plays an active role in the politics of Madagascar, is the mayor of Tuamasin and in third place in the 2006 presidential election, receiving 10.14% of the vote.
- Anna Brazhkina. Many Malagasy came to the urns
- Madagascar, Democratic Republic of Madagascar
- RACIRACA (Ratsiraka) Didier
- Madagascar - Encyclopedia "Around the World"
- Madagascar Island - New Madagascar
- Kusov, Vitaliy . Didier Ratsiraka: President of Madagascar, biography and rule (Russian) , Rulers of Africa: XXI century . Date of treatment July 2, 2018.
- Former President on the Run / World / Independent Newspaper
- Former president of Madagascar left the country - World - Truth. RU
- Madagascar former president Didier Ratsiraka arrives in Paris | RIA News
- Madagascar: 10 Years' Hard Labor For Ex-President
- Didier Ratsiraka, the 'Red Admiral', back in Madagascar