The War of Saint Sava ( 1256 - 1270 ) - an armed conflict in the crusader states of Palestine between the Genoese (with the assistance of the ruler of Tire Philippe de Montfort and the Knights Hospitallers ) on the one hand and the Venetians (in alliance with Pisa , Provencal , Templars and most Palestinian barons) - with another. Being part of a long conflict between the Mediterranean republics of Venice and Genoa , the war was at the same time one of the acts of large-scale confrontation between gibellines and Guelphs .
The formal reason for starting the war was a dispute over the monastery of St. Sava in Acre , located between the Venetian and Genoese neighborhoods. In 1256, the Genoese, who were in Acre, along with the Pisans , who were originally their allies, captured the Venetian ships in the harbor and constrained their enemies inside the city. In the same year, the ruler of Tire, Philippe de Montfort, expelled the Venetians from his city, a third of which they had previously occupied. In response, Venice entered into alliances with the Provencees (representatives of Saint-Gilles , Marseilles , Montpellier ), the Templars and many Palestinian feudal lords, including Count Jaffa , and most importantly, she managed to lure the Pisans to her side.
In 1257, a large Venetian fleet under the command of Lorenzo Tiepolo defeated the Genoese in the harbor of Acre. Many of the houses and towers of the city were destroyed by siege machines . It is reported that in those days in Acre killed about 20 thousand people. Later, with the assistance of Pope Alexander IV , a short truce was concluded.
On June 24, 1258, the Genoese fleet , which arrived on the Palestinian shores, entered into battle with the enemy. The result was the death of more than half of the Genoese ships, surviving ships took refuge in the harbor of Thira. As a result of this defeat, the Genoese were forced to leave Acre and, together with their two consuls, moved to Tire. Later, the Knights of the Templars and Hospitallers took part in the conflict. In the armed conflict of 1259 in Acre, both military monastic orders suffered significant losses.
The return of Genoa was the signing in March 1261 of the Treaty of Nymphaeum with the Nicene Emperor Michael Paleolog , according to which the Genoese in response to assistance in expelling the Latins from Constantinople received major trade privileges, and the Venetians were to be expelled. In July, Constantinople was taken by the troops of Michael, the Byzantine Empire was restored. Despite the fact that the Genoese did not provide significant assistance to the Byzantines, they received the right to free trade in the renewed empire. They were provided with quarters in Smyrna , Thessaloniki and Constantinople, special branches on Chios and Lesbos . Access to the Black Sea was declared open only to Byzantine, Genoa and Pisa ships. Pera, a suburb of the Byzantine capital, became the main base of Genoa in the Middle East .
In subsequent years, a war between the republics periodically erupted in Palestine. In 1264, the Venetians tried to take Tire, and in 1267 the Genoese attacked Acre.
The result of the war was the weakening of the forces of Europeans in Palestine. Acra, Tyr and Tripoli ceased to be significant centers of transit trade, giving way to the Cypriot ports. Military orders, weakened by internal conflict, could not resist the advance of Muslims, which led in 1291 to the fall of Acre, and then Beirut , Tire and Sidon - the last possessions of the crusaders in the Holy Land .
- Venetian-Genoese Wars
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