Hans Friedrich 2nd von Rochow ( German: Hans Friedrich II. Von Rochow ; 1698 , the estate of Pless, now part of the Bremen , Brandenburg - 1787 , Brandenburg-on-Havel ) - Prussian lieutenant general, military commander of Berlin The Seven Years' War (1756-1760), which became famous due to the inglorious surrender of the city in 1757 to the Austrian detachment of General Hadik and three years later, in 1760, signed the surrender of the garrison to the Russian general Totleben .
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Rohov is a native of an old noble family, the first mention of whose representatives dates back to the 8th century. The Rohovs came from the Slavic tribe of the Havelians . Since the beginning of the 13th century, the Rochs have been mentioned as owners of vast estates in Brandenburg , located along the Havel River between the cities of Brandenburg and Potsdam . In the XVI century, the Rohov family was divided into 4 branches, Hans Friedrich Rochov belonged to the Pless branch (by the name of the family estate). The Rochovs family, historically associated with Brandenburg, has many well-known figures in Germany, in particular, well-known Prussian military leaders.
Hans Friedrich Rochov began his service in the “long” regiment, where the “soldier king” Friedrich Wilhelm I gathered giants from all over Europe. Here he rose to the rank of captain. After the disbandment of the regiment, he continued to serve in the regiment of the Prince of Braunschweig in Magdeburg , then, with the rank of colonel, he was appointed commandant of the Neisse fortress (1744) and soon became a major general. Shortly before the start of the Seven Years War, he resigned.
With the beginning of the Seven Years War, he returned to service and, because of health reasons, was not suitable for the army (due to a sore back, General Rohov could not ride), he was appointed military commander of Berlin with the simultaneous assignment of the rank of lieutenant general. In October 1757, Rokhov, being the supreme military authority of the Prussian capital, ignored reports of the Austrian detachment approaching Berlin, took practically no precaution, and when the Austrians of General Hadik broke into the city, fled, under the pretext of guarding the queen, taking with them to Spandau is a large part of the garrison.
Upon returning to Berlin, he almost became a victim of lynching of an indignant crowd of citizens who had to be dispersed by troops. Despite his inglorious behavior, he retained the post of Berlin commandant. Three years later, having received the first news of an upcoming expedition of the Russian troops against Berlin (the lawyer brought this news, who visited, on the instructions of a Berlin banker, a Russian field camp), he went, according to an eyewitness account, several days as if struck by thunder without revealing to anyone, so that rumors began to run around the city that, apparently, a great misfortune had happened to the king. When it was no longer possible to hide the news and, three days before the Russians appeared, a military council was held and spoke out for leaving the city at the mercy of the enemy. The task of defending Berlin was undertaken by Field Marshal Lehwald and Generals Seidlitz and Knobloch. The last act of Rohov was the signing of the surrender of the garrison of Berlin on October 9, 1760. The general spent the last years of his army service in Russian captivity.
Not distinguishing himself with courage in defending the Prussian capital entrusted to him, the general was, in all probability, an executive and reliable rear official, it is known that Frederick II trusted him: his successor as commandant was initially appointed temporarily, until Rohov returned from captivity, however, since the captivity was delayed, and the successor proved himself well, Rohov, who returned from captivity, found his place occupied and he had no choice but to resign in 1764. He died in his estate at a very advanced age, having lived, almost, up to ninety years.
- Zedlitz-Neukirch, Leopold: Neues preussisches Adels-lexicon, Vierter Band, Gebrüder Reichenbach, Leipzig 1836, S.429f
- I.V. von Archengolts: History of the Seven Years War, AST, Moscow 2001