Friedebert Mihkelson , better known as Friedebert Tuglas ( Est. Friedebert Tuglas , February 18 [ March 2 ], 1886 , minor Ahja, Põlva County - April 15, 1971 , Tallinn ), is an Estonian prose writer , literary critic and translator , art critic , and literary critic . People's writer of the Estonian SSR ( 1946 ), corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the ESSR (1946). He gained fame as a convinced democrat , humanist and patriot . Nowadays, it is considered one of the founders of the modern literary Estonian language .
Friedebert Touglas, 1910
|Birth name||Friedebert Michkelson|
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth|
|Date of death|
|Place of death|
|Citizenship||Russian Empire, Estonia, USSR|
|Occupation||prose writer , literary critic , translator , art critic, literary critic|
|Years of creativity||1906-1971|
|Direction||neo-romanticism , realism , naturalism , symbolism|
|Language of Works||Estonian|
The son of a laborer. From 1904 to 1905 he studied at the gymnasium of Hugo Treffner .
He was in prison for revolutionary activity, in 1906 he went abroad, lived in Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and France, Finland, then returned to Estonia just in time for the February Revolution of 1917 .
He was the leader of the Estonian literary group of the early twentieth century Young Estonia (Noor-Eesti). He was one of the founders of the Union of Writers of Estonia and was its chairman in 1922, 1925-1927 and 1937-1939.
He was awarded the title of People's Writer of the Estonian SSR in 1946. In the same year he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the ESSR. Subsequently fell into disgrace, was officially blacklisted, stripped of his civil rights and expelled from membership in all organizations, including the Writers' Union, from which he was expelled in 1950.
He died soon after completing his memoirs, recognized as the main work in the life of the writer. In the same year, a museum was opened in Tallinn dedicated to his life and work. In 1971, the Tuglas Literary Prize was established.
Over 65 years of literary work, he has created more than 150 works of the most diverse genre - memoirs, travel essays, essays, short stories, and research. His role in the life of Estonian literary associations is also great.
He translated the works of A. P. Chekhov and M. Gorky into Estonian, the novel by A. Tolstoy “ Peter the Great ”.
- Order of the Badge of Honor (12/30/1956)
- Friedebert Tuglas instituted a special literary prize for short stories named after him ( Friedebert Tuglase Novelliauhind ).
- In Tartu , a monument was erected in honor of the writer.
- In Finland , the Friedebert Tuglas Society operates.