Reactive Research Institute (RNII, since 1937 - NII-3) - was founded in 1933, becoming one of the first research institutions in the USSR to develop rocketry   . The Katyusha rocket launcher has been developed at the institute.
|Reactive Research Institute (Reactive Institute, since 1937 - NII-3, since 1942 - GIRT)|
( RNII )
|Former names||Gas Dynamics Laboratory|
Jet Propulsion Study Group
|Year of foundation||September 21, 1933 at the People’s Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs , October 31, 1933 at |
People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry 
|Reorganized||Research Center named after M.V. Keldysh|
People's Commissariat of the aviation industry
|Year reorganization||February 18, 1944|
|Director||Kleimenov, Ivan Terentyevich|
Slonimer, Boris Mikhailovich
Kostikov, Andrei Grigorievich
|Employees||Korolev, Sergey Pavlovich|
Glushko, Valentin Petrovich
Langemak, George Erichovich
Pallo, Arvid Vladimirovich
Petrov, Evgeny Stepanovich
Pobedonostsev, Yuri Alexandrovich
Popov, Roman Ivanovich
Rauschenbach, Boris Viktorovich
Tikhonravov, Mikhail Klavdievich
Zander, Friedrich Arturovich
Sternfeld, Ari Abramovich
Schetinkov, Evgeny Sergeevich
|Legal address||Onezhskaya St. , 8/10|
The RNII was created in Moscow by order of the Revolutionary Military Council (RVS) No. 0113 of 09/21/1933  by the merger of the Moscow Group for the Study of Jet Propulsion (GIRD ) (created in 1931, the head of S.P. Korolyov) and the Leningrad Gas Dynamics Laboratory ( GDL ) (established in 1921, leader I.T. Kleimenov) signed by the deputy chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, the chief of armaments of the Red Army M.N. Tukhachevsky in the system of the People's Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs of the USSR (People's Commissariat of War). The first head of the institute was a 1st-rank military engineer Ivan Terentyevich Kleimenov, his deputy was a divisional engineer Sergey Pavlovich Korolev (from January 11, 1934 he will be replaced by George Erichovich Langemak)  .
Decree of the Council of Labor and Defense (STO) No. 104cc dated October 31, 1933, signed by the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR V.M. The Molotov organization of the RNII was assigned to the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR  .
In December 1936 it was renamed the NII-3 People’s Commissariat of the Defense Industry (from 1.1939 - People’s Commissariat of Ammunition)  .
By the decree of the GKO of the USSR of July 15, 1942 it was transformed into the State Institute of Rocket Technology (GIRT) under the SNK of the USSR  .
February 18, 1944, the State Defense Committee in connection with the "intolerable situation with the development of jet technology in the USSR" decided "... to liquidate the State Institute of Jet Technology under the USSR SNK" and entrust the People’s Commissariat of Aviation with the solution of this problem. The Institute entered the system of the new People’s Commissariat under the name of NII-1.
Organizational structure of RNII
In the initial period, the RNII had four thematic divisions:
- The first department was engaged in the development of engines and solid fuel rockets (Yu. A. Pobedonostsev, K. K. Glukharev, L. E. Schwartz);
- The second department developed liquid-fuel engines (M.K. Tikhonravov, A. I. Stenyaev, A. G. Kostikov); LRE teams - V.P. Glushko and L.S. Dushkin;
- The third department was engaged in cruise missiles (P.P. Zuykov): cruise missiles - E. S. Shchetinkov , jet launch - V. I. Dudakov;
- The fourth section investigated the properties of solid fuels (I. S. Alexandrov);
For 10 years of the Institute’s existence:
- Experimental ballistic missiles and engines for them.
- 1938 - military tests of a fundamentally new weapon, begun in 1929, were completed — the RS-82 and RS-132 aviation missiles   .
- 1939 - flight tests of a cruise missile 212 with an ORM-65 engine
- 1940 - pilot V.P. Fedorov made a flight on RP-318 , designed at the Russian Research Institute
- 1941 - June 17 at the Sofrinsky training ground completed military tests of the " BM-13 Katyusha rocket launcher for a sudden powerful artillery attack on the enemy with the help of missile shells"  .
- 1942 - test pilot G. Ya. Bakhchivanji flies on BI-1 - the first aircraft in the USSR equipped with a liquid propellant rocket engine . The engine was designed at the RNII.
- 1943-1944 - a number of other experimental ballistic and cruise missiles and engines for them.
- 1942-1944 - an attempt to create their own rocket aircraft, 302 , failed (which served as the basis for the elimination of research institutes).
Leaders (RNII - NII-3 - GIRT - NII-1)
- Chief  1st-rank military engineer Kleimenov Ivan Terentyevich (1933 - 1937)
- Director Slonimer Boris Mikhailovich (10.30.1937 - 1941)
- Director Kostikov Andrey Grigorievich (1942 - 1944)
- Director Fedorov Peter Ivanovich (1944 - 1945)
- Director Bibikov Yakov Lvovich (1945 - 1946)
- Director (then - supervisor) Keldysh Mstislav Vsevolodovich (1946 - 1961).
RNII in persons
Scientists and engineers
A number of well-known scientists and engineers worked at the RNII, including Vladimir A. Artemyev , Vladimir Petrovich Vetchinkin , Ivan Isidorovich Gvay , Valentin Petrovich Glushko , Kleimenov Ivan Terentevich , Sergey Pavlovich Korolev , George Erichovich Langemak , Vasily Nikolaevich Luzhin , Arvid Vladimirov Paluzhlov , Arvid Vladimirov Paluzhlo , Arvid Vladimirov Palirovlo , Vladimir Vladimirov Petrov , Yuri Alexandrovich Pobedonostsev , Boris Viktorovich Raushenbakh , Mikhail Klavdievich Tikhonravov , Ari Abramovich Sternfeld , Roman Ivanovich Popov , Boris Mikhailovich Slonimer .
Pobedonostsev, Yuri Alexandrovich (1907-1973)
GIRD and GDL predecessors
Tikhomirov, Nikolai Ivanovich (1859-1930)
RNII products were tested:
Bahchivanji, Grigory Yakovlevich (1908-1943)
Fedorov, Vladimir Pavlovich (1915-1943)
- Aborenkov, Vasily Vasilievich (1901-1954) - one of the curators of the RNII from the Artillery Directorate of the Red Army.
Awards and rewards
- Order of the Red Star (1942) - for the development of new types of weapons.
- For the enormous contribution to domestic and world science and technology in 1966, the crater chain (540 km long) on the far side of the Moon was given the name "RNII".
- Research Center named after M.V. Keldysh
- SSC FSUE “Center of Keldysh”. Story. The official website “By Decree of the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR of October 31, 1933 No. 104 was organized by the RNII — a reactive research institute (now the State Scientific Center of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise Keldysh Center).”
- GIRD turns 80 years old
- August 17, 1933 the first Soviet liquid-fuel rocket was tested
- Vladimir Bugrov // GIRD turns 80 years old. "Russian newspaper". 12.07.2012 "... and on October 31, 1933, Molotov signed Resolution No. 104 ss of the Council of Labor and Defense, with which the organization RNII was entrusted to the People's Commissariat of Heavy Industry."
- January 11, 1934, the post of deputy chief of the RNII was liquidated, and instead the post of chief engineer was introduced.
- Rakhmanin 2013, 2013 , p. 29-30: “On September 21, 1933, Tukhachevsky, replacing People’s Commissar Voroshilov at that time, signed order No. 0113 on the organization of the RNII RKKA, appointing I.T. Kleimenov, and his deputy, S.P. Queen. This was the first, but not the final step in organizing the RNII, on October 31, 1933, the Council of Labor and Defense (STO) adopted Decree No. 104 of October 31, 1933 "On the Organization of the Reactive Institute" as part of the NKTP. "
- site encyclopedia.mil.ru - Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
- Keldysh Center, 2003 , p. nineteen.
- Rakhmanin 2015, 2015 .
- Keldysh Center, 2003 , p. 27.
- from 10.1933 - director
- AKIMOV V.N., KOROTEEV A.S., GAFAROV A.A. other. First decade. RNII-NII-3-GIRT // Research Center named after M.V. Keldysh. 1933-2003: 70 years at the forefront of rocket and space technology . - M: "Mechanical Engineering", 2003. - S. 11-37. - 439 s. - ISBN 5-217-03205-7 .
- RNII. Chapters from the book "Father" Natalia Koroleva
- Rakhmaninov V. F. The problematic beginning and dramatic end of the development of the H1 launch vehicle // "Engine": journal. - M. , 2013 .-- No. 1 (85) . - p . 26-32 .
- Rakhmaninov V.F. Thirty-three years in rocketry: successes, disagreements, conflicts : magazine "Engine". - 2015. - No. 5 (101) . - S. 52-60 .
- Alexander Melenberg. Missiles were built on denunciations . On the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the launch of the Soviet space program . Novaya Gazeta (September 19, 2008) . Date of treatment November 6, 2017. Archived November 6, 2017.
- Korolev S.P. in RNII (1933-1938) . Historical and documentary online exhibition "Space as fate." On the centenary of the birth of S.P. Korolev . FAA “ Russian State Archive of Scientific and Technical Documentation ” (2006) . - Hall three of the seven halls. The appeal date is November 8, 2017.