Anastasia the Preserver , Agia (Ayia) Anastasia Pharmacolithria ( dr. Greek Ἀναστασία Φ Φαρμακολύτρια ; dr. Greek φαρμακολύτρια from other Greek “- to deliver ") - a holy, Christian great martyr of the IV century . She suffered a martyrdom in 304 in Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia ) during the “ great persecution ” of Christians under the emperor Diocletian . Therefore, it is called Anastasia of Sirmia . In the tradition of the Russian Orthodox Church, she is known as Anastasia the Decisive, because she facilitated ("resolved") the suffering of Christian prisoners  .
|Anastasia the Patternerer|
|Ἀναστασία ἡ Φαρμακολύτρια|
Anastasia the Decisive.
15th century Byzantine icon. State Hermitage Museum
|Is revered||in the Orthodox and Catholic churches|
|In the face||great martyrs|
|Day of Remembrance||in the Catholic Church - December 25 , |
in the Orthodox Church - December 22 ( January 4 )
|Patroness||doctors in Greece; in the Catholic Church - weavers , widows|
In the folk tradition of the Eastern Slavs, it was believed that the saint helps to get rid of the "bonds of pregnancy"   .
Reliable historical information about the martyrdom of Anastasia was not preserved.
According to the life of the VI century, Anastasia was a noble Roman, a student of St. Chrysogon . Her mother Fausta of Sirmia , a secret Christian, raised her daughter in the Christian faith. Saint Anastasia secretly visited Christian prisoners languishing in Roman dungeons and looked after them. After the execution of her teacher St. Chrysogon, she began to wander, so that wherever she could help Christians who were severely persecuted. She passed through Greece , Macedonia ; upon her arrival in the Sirmium, she was captured and, after torment, burned at the stake. In some later lives, features of the biography of Anastasia the Younger and Anastasia the Elder are mixed.
The veneration of Anastasia in the West in the IV century was widespread, which is confirmed by the church of St. Anastasia , erected in Rome in the IV century at the foot of the Palatine and preserved to this day. In this temple, the pope traditionally served the second Christmas Mass in honor of St. Anastasia, whose memory is celebrated on Christmas Day, which later transformed into the so-called "Mass at Dawn" ( Latin Missa in aurora ).
The relics of St. Anastasia were transferred from Sirmium to Constantinople at the end of the 5th century. From there, particles of her relics dispersed throughout Europe. At the beginning of the 9th century, Emperor Nicephorus I presented part of the relics to the holy Zadar bishop Donatus  , who placed them in the Cathedral of St. Anastasia in the Croatian city of Zadar . Reliquaries with the relics of St. Anastasia are also stored on Mount Athos , in Rome, in the monastery of the Bavarian city of Benediktbeuern  .
The honest leader was in the Monastery of Anastasia the Solvers, located in the mountains on the peninsula of Halkidiki , near the city of Thessaloniki (Thessaloniki). On the night of April 22-23, 2012, the relics were stolen  .
Saint Anastasia is one of seven women, with the exception of the Virgin Mary , whose name is included in the Roman canon of the mass. The name of Anastasia is also included in Catholic litany by all saints . Iconographic symbols - a cross, a bottle of healing oil. The memory of St. Anastasia in the Catholic Church - December 25 , in the Orthodox Church - December 22 ( January 4 ).
The name Saint Sacrifice was interpreted by the Russians in their own way: the words “bonds” (fetters), “prison” (prison) meant the pregnancy of a woman. It was believed that the baby was tied with the umbilical cord to the womb of the mother, and the act of birth - permission from the burden for the mother and the release of the baby from the mother’s womb-prison  . The symbolism of ties was attached great importance: it was believed that the pregnant woman should not be winding ropes, knotting knots, knitting threads, and in the clothes of a woman giving birth there should not be knots. Among the Eastern Slavs, the saint was considered the patroness of pregnant women and a healer, so they prayed to her during childbirth  . In Novgorod icon painting, among the holy wives, she takes the second place after Saint Paraskeva Friday among the holy women. On the day of remembrance, the holy women did not work  . The Holy Corresponds to the Mother of God , Week (Sunday) and Paraskeva Friday  .
The Bulgarians in the Rhodopes and Strandja venerated the saint as "Nashtash", "Black Saints" or "Black Baba" ( Bulgarian. Nashtash, Sveta Chyorn, Baba Chern )  . The day was associated with ideas about death  . Women did not do any work so that the house would not “blacken”, that is, no one in the family would die  (cf. Anna is dark ).
- Anastasia Roman (senior)
- Anastasia Roman (younger)
- Week (mythology)
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