Queensland is a state in the northeast of mainland Australia . The population is 4,332,739 people  (3rd place among the states of the country). The capital and largest city is Brisbane . Motto: Audax at Fidelis (“Bold but Faithful”). The official nicknames are “ Sunshine State ”  and “Smart State” ( Sunshine State , Smart State ).
|Governor||Paul de Jersey |
|History and Geography|
|Date of formation|
|Square||1,730,648 km² (2nd place )|
|The largest city||Brisbane|
|Dr. big cities||Gold Coast , Logan , Redland City , Ipswich , Toowoomba|
|Population||4 332 739 people ( 2011 ) ( 3rd place )|
|Density||2.5 people / km² (6th place)|
|Denominations||Catholics, Anglicans, United Church, Lutherans, Buddhists, Muslims, Hindus, Jews|
|ISO 3166-2 Code||AU-QLD|
The first settlers of the region were Australian natives and islanders of the Torres Strait , who arrived, according to various dating methods, 40-65 thousand years ago. Later, after the arrival of European colonists, a British colony was created in Queensland, which became a separate administrative-territorial unit on June 6, 1859. This date is now annually celebrated as .
The territory that Brisbane now occupies was originally a Morton Bay colony , intended to refer there convicted repeat offenders who committed a second crime while in exile in New South Wales . Later, state authorities began to encourage the creation of free settlements, which today has led to the development of agriculture, tourism and the use of natural resources.
Most of the state’s population lives in Southeast Queensland , which includes the capital Brisbane, Logan City , Redland City , Ipswich , Toowoomba , as well as Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast . Other important regional centers are Cairns , Townsville , Mackay , Rockhampton , Bundaberg , Harvey Bay , Ingem and Mount Isa .
The state got its name in honor of Queen Victoria , who on June 6, 1859 signed a decree on the creation of a new state on part of the territory of New South Wales. Victoria, popular in those days, preferred the name in honor of Kuksland, which was offered by the local influential Presbyterian minister John Dunmore Lang in honor of the English navigator James Cook . The southern Australian state of Victoria was also named after this queen.
The territory of Queensland covers an area of 1,730,648 km²  (second place among the states of the country). In the north, the state is washed by the waters of the Gulf of Carpentaria and the Coral Sea of the Pacific Ocean , in the east - by the Pacific Ocean. In the south, Queensland borders with New South Wales , in the west - with the Northern Territory and South Australia .
The capital of Brisbane is located on the coast 100 km north of the border with New South Wales. Mount Isa , the fifth largest city in the world, is located in the state. The area of the city is more than 40,000 km². Queensland is divided into 11 large geographical regions and 3 smaller ( Atherton , Granite Belt and Channel Country ) located in the extreme southwest of the state.
Queensland is rich in picturesque places of natural origin, such as: Sunshine Coast and Gold Coast, which have the best beaches of the state; Banya Mountains and the Great Dividing Range with numerous waterfalls (including the highest waterfall in Australia - Wallamen ), picnic places and magnificent landscapes; Carnarvon Gorge ; Whitsunday Islands and Hinchinbrook Island .
The state has five World Heritage conservation areas: the Australian Riversley Mammal Fossil Reserve in Gulf Country , the Central East Rainforest Reserve , Fraser Island , the Great Barrier Reef and the Queensland Wet Tropics .
Due to the large size of the state, the climate in different parts of its territory is extremely diverse. A small amount of precipitation and hot summers are characteristic of the inland west, the monsoon 'wet' season for the far north and the temperate warm climate for the coastal strip. The temperature minimum is typical for the inner and southern regions of the state. The climate of the coastal strip is influenced by the warm waters of the ocean, which leads to the absence of extreme temperatures and constant humidity for precipitation.
There are five climatic zones prevailing in Queensland and varying in temperature and humidity:
- hot humid summers (extreme north and coast)
- warm, humid summers (coastal elevated inland areas and coastal southeast)
- hot dry summers, mild winters (central west)
- hot dry summers, cold winters (south west)
- moderately warm summers, cold winters (inner southeast, for example Granite Belt )
Nevertheless, the majority of Queensland's settlements are subject to changes of two seasons: the “winter” season with prevailing warm temperatures and minimal rainfall, and the stuffy summer one with high temperatures and high rainfall.
Average annual statistics for some Queensland centers:
|city||min pace. ° C||Max. pace. ° C||count clear days||precipitation, mm|
|Townsville||18||29th||n / a||1144|
The officially recorded maximum temperature in the state was 49.5 ° C ; Birdsville was December 24, 1972 (the maximum was 53.1 ° C; Cloncurry was not officially recognized on January 16, 1889).
The minimum temperature is −10.6 ° C, Stanthorpe on June 23, 1961 and The Hermitage on July 12, 1965.
The history of the region dates back thousands of years, including the long aboriginal (pre-colonial) period and the times of the colonization of Australia by European settlers. The first Australian aborigines arrived in the region about 40,000 years ago, and the first sailors to explore northeast Australia before it was discovered by Captain James Cook in 1770 were the Dutch, Portuguese and French. In June 2009, the 150th anniversary of the founding of the state and its separation from New South Wales was celebrated. Queensland was the scene of military clashes between Aboriginal and colonists, as well as one of the centers of labor migration of Kanaks from the islands of Oceania .
Executive power is represented by the Governor , who is represented and appointed by Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Prime Minister . Since 2014, Paul de Jersey has been governor. The head of government is the prime minister, appointed by the governor with the mandatory approval of his candidacy by the Legislative Assembly . Since 2015, Anastacia Palaschuk , representing the Australian Labor Party , has been prime minister. The remaining ministers forming the Executive Council are appointed by the Governor from among the members of the Legislative Assembly on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
The Queensland Parliament , or Legislative Assembly, is unicameral . Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral legislature. The bicameral system existed until 1922, when the Legislative Council was abolished by the Labor members of the “suicide team”, so-called because they were appointed to vote for the abolition of their posts and posts.
The Queensland judicial system consists of the Supreme and District Courts , approved in accordance with the Queensland Constitution, as well as various other courts and tribunals, approved by ordinary acts of the Queensland Parliament.
In 2001, Queensland adopted a new codified constitution repealing most of the various parliamentary laws that were part of the previous constitution. The new constitution entered into force on June 6, 2002, on the anniversary of Queen Victoria's signing of the letter on the formation of the Queensland colony in 1859.
The bulk of Queensland's population lives outside the capital, which distinguishes it from other mainland states. As of June 2004, the metropolitan population was 45.7% of the state’s population, while in the country as a whole, the metropolitan population was 63.8% of the total population.
- Christians : 70.9%:
- Catholics : 24.9%
- Anglican : 22.3%
- United Church : 8.4%
- Lutherans : 2.1%
- Others: 13.2%
- Non-Christians: 2.3%
- Buddhists : 1.1%
- Muslims : 0.4%
- Hindus : 0.3%
- Jews : 0.1%
- Other: 0.4%
- Unbelievers: 14.8%
- Not Specified: 12.0%
On December 9, 2005, Queensland's population officially reached 4 million. Queensland is Australia's fastest growing state, with over 1,500 people arriving per week, 1,000 of them in the southern part of the state. Queensland is projected to be Australia's second most populous state by the end of 2020. According to Cleveland's Office of Economic and Statistical Research, the state had a population of 4,228,290 at the end of 2007, representing nearly 20% of the total Australian population.
In 2007, the total Queensland fertility rate reached 2.09, the highest since 1977.
The Queensland economy has experienced a boom in tourism and mining over the past 20 years. A significant influx of Australian and foreign migrants, a large amount of federal government investment, increased mining, and an ever-growing aerospace sector provide the fastest growing economy among Australian states for the foreseeable future.
From 1992 to 2002, the growth of Queensland's Gross Product exceeded that of all other states and territories. During this period, the Queensland HFS grew by 5.0% annually, while Australia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew annually by an average of 3.9%.
In 2003, Brisbane had the lowest cost of living of all Australian state capitals. But already at the end of 2005, he became the third in terms of living among state capitals after Sydney and Canberra, ahead of Melbourne in cost of living by $ 15,000.
The primary sector of the economy includes: the cultivation of bananas, pineapples, peanuts, a wide variety of other fruits and vegetables of the temperate climate and the tropics, cereals, winemaking, livestock, cotton, sugarcane, wool and the mining industry: bauxite, coal, silver, lead, zinc, gold and copper.
The secondary sector of the economy is mainly the further processing of the above-mentioned products of the primary sector: bauxites from Weipa are processed into alumina in Gladstone . There is also copper processing and sugarcane processing for sugar.
The main sectors of the tertiary sector are retail and tourism.
Tourism is a leading industry in the tertiary sector of the Queensland economy. Sunshine State attracts millions of Australian and foreign tourists annually. Queensland is a state of contrasts consisting of sunny tropical coastal areas, lush rainforests and arid inland areas.
The main tourist attractions are:
- Great Barrier Reef
- Whitsunday (Airlie Beach, Whitehaven Beach, Hamilton Island, Daydream Island)
- Gold Coast
- Far North Queensland (Cairns, Port Douglas, Daintree)
- North Stradbrook Island and South Stradbrock Island
- Sunshine coast
- North Queensland (Townsville, Magnetic Island)
- Harvey Bay / Fraser Island
The Queensland Gold Coast is sometimes called the "Capital of Australia's Theme Parks" for its five major amusement parks:
- Vet n Wilde
- Movi world
- Sea world
- Whitewater world
There are also wildlife parks, including:
- Gold Coast
- Kerrambin Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerrambin
- David Flea Wildlife Park at Burley Heads
- Sunshine coast
- Underwater World Aquarium in Mooloolaba
- Stephen Irwin Australia Zoo near Burwe / Glasshouse Mountains
- ( Steve Irwin's house until his death on September 4, 2006)
- Lone Pine Koala in Fig Three Pocket
- Brisbane Forest Park in the Gap
- Alma Park Zoo in Dakabin
- North of brisbane
- Cambartcho Wildlife Sanctuary (originally Banya Park Wildlife Sanctuary)
Queensland hotels account for about 22% of the total tourist expenses, followed by restaurants / food (15%), airfare (11%), fuel (11%), and shopping / gift shopping (11%).
A number of National Highways pass through Queensland, in particular high-quality motorways such as the M1 pass through Southeast Queensland.
The main railway companies are Queensland Rail and Pacific National, primarily serving coastal ports, including the Brisbane Port and the auxiliary ports of Gladstone and Townsville .
Brisbane Airport is the state’s main airport for international and local flights. The airports of Gold Coast and Cairns are the next two in importance in servicing international flights. Other regional airports serve domestic traffic: Great Barrier Reef , Harvey Bay , Mackay , Mount Isa , Proserpine / Whitsunday Coast , Rockhampton , Sunshine Coast and Townsville .
Passenger movement in Southeast Queensland is accomplished using TransLink's comprehensive public transport system, consisting of bus , rail and ferry services . There is also a regional bus network and rail links with other states. Most regional centers have bus stations.
- Australian Catholic University (Brisbane Campus)
- Queensland University of Technology
- Bond University
- Griffith University
- James Cook University
- University of Queensland
- Sunshine Costa University
- University of Central Queensland
- University of South Queensland
The State of Queensland is represented in all Australia's national sporting events and also hosts a number of domestic and international sporting events. The most popular sports are cricket and rugby league . The annual State of Origin rugby series is a major sporting event in Queensland.
Swimming is also a popular sport in the state, most members of the Australian national team and winners of international competitions hailing from Queensland. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Queensland swimmers won all six of Australia's gold medals .
The main professional teams:
- Australian Football : Brisbane Lions
- Basketball : Townsville Crocodiles , Cairns Typanz and Gold Coast Blaze
- Netball : Queensland Fairbirds
- Rugby 15 : Queensland Reds
- Rugby League :
- Representative: Queensland Maroons
- Clubs: Brisbane Broncos , Gold Coast Titans and North Queensland Cowboys
- Football : Brisbane Roar , North Queensland Fury and Gold Coast United
- Grand Prix Gold Coast
- World Surfing Championship
- State of Origin
- V8 Supercars
Starfish Mushroom ( Aseroe rubra ) in Queensland
Sugarcane fields surround the village of Proserpine and its sugar factory
Calandra and the northern tip of Bribey Island