Peppermint oil ( Latin: Ol. Menthae piperitae , German: Pfefferminzöl , FR. Ess. De menthe poivrée ; English Peppermint oil ).
The oil is obtained by water or steam race from fresh or dried peppermint , cut at the time of full flowering, in an amount of 0.3-1.5%. M. oil is purified by repeated distillation and prior to final distillation by agitation with a mercuric chloride to remove sulfur compounds. Extract improves the aroma of oil; freshly obtained it never has a subtle smell.
Peppermint extract is used to add peppermint flavor to pastries, desserts and sweets.
Peppermint extract has long been used in medicine to alleviate the symptoms of colds and flu, as well as to reduce bloating and flatulence, in particular with irritable bowel syndrome    . Peppermint extract is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of arthritis and rheumatism, to relieve pain in menstrual pain  , headache and toothache.  for the treatment of herpes. 
Peppermint oil production in different countries
There are a lot of varieties of M. oil on sale (the state at the end of the 19th century is described), usually designated by their place of origin and quite different from each other in smell, physical properties, and partly in chemical composition. The most valuable of all varieties of M. oil is English oil from gr. Mitchum; The special qualities of this oil seem to depend on local climatic and soil conditions. A chemical study of the reasons for the superior qualities of English oil over others does not explain. The most common in trade today is American oil, but its quality is lower than others, but it is much cheaper.
American oil has an oud. weighing 0.905-0.914; αD = –18 ° to –33 °. At -20 ° it solidifies almost into a continuous mass. The main component is free menthol (40-50%) and in the form of acetic and isovalerian ethers (4-15%); then menton (3-12%) and then, in greater or lesser amounts of acetic and isovaleric aldehydes , amyl alcohol , acetic and isovaleric acid , pinene , fellandren , cineole , limonene , some lactone of the composition C 10 H 16 O 2 and dimethyl sulfide . The smell and taste of oil leave much to be desired; the reason for this is probably a sloppy race and an admixture of the weed mint being processed.
English oil. Beats weight 0.900-0.910; αD = –22 ° to –33 °. The chemical composition is approximately the same as that of American oil, but with a higher menthol content (50-60%), the oil at -20 ° hardens less completely; one may think, therefore, that next to ordinary, secondary menthol, the oil contains tertiary menthol, the presence of which (in free form and in the form of ethers) determines the subtlety and pleasantness of the aroma of English oil. German oil. Specific weight 0.899-0.93; αD = –27 ° to –33 °. This oil was formerly very widespread in the past, but is now supplanted by the American one (the end of the 19th century is described).
Almost all oil sold under the name of German, at best in Germany, rectified American oil.
Russian oil. Beats weight 0.901-0.915; αD = –17 ° to –23 °. The content of free menthol is 40–57%, in the form of esters 3–11%; Menton 6-12%. Completely separate from all of the above. varieties of M. oils is Japanese oil obtained from another type of mint (M. arvensis). It consists almost exclusively of free menthol (90%) and its esters (3-6%). Beats its weight is 0.895-0.9; pace. melted + 17 ° and up to + 28 °; αD = –30 ° and up to –42 °. In addition to this natural product, and even more often, Japanese oil comes in for sale with partly freezing it with selected menthol. Such an oil has a specific gravity. weight 0.895-0.905; αD = = –26 ° to –35 °; the content of menthol is free up to 55%, and in the form of esters about 7%.
Peppermint oil is often falsified (sometimes by adding curly peppermint oil ); to open mixtures:
- determine the physical constants and% content of menthol (free and bound) and menthol and
- subject the oil to fractional distillation (80% of pure oil should go between 200 ° and 225 °; no more than 2% should be distilled to 200 °).
In total, about 200,000 kg of oil is produced annually on the globe (at the end of the 19th century); Of these, America delivers over 100,000, Japan about 80,000 and England about 10,000 kg. The remaining 10,000 kg are from France, Germany, Russia and Italy.
- Peppermint essential oil
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- Heshmati, Akram; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mojab, Faraze; Shakeri, Nozhat; Nikkhah, Somayeh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh. The effect of peppermint (Mentha piperita) capsules on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea (Eng.) // Journal of Herbal Medicine: journal. - 2016. - Vol. 6 , no. 3 . - P. 137—141 . - DOI : 10.1016 / j.hermed.2016.05.05.001 .
- Worwood, Valerie Ann (1991). The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy. New World Library. pp. 1, 20. ISBN 0-931432-82-0 .
- Schuhmacher, A & Reichling, J & Schnitzler, P. (2003). Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 10.504-10. 10.1078 / 094471103322331467.
- Debu K.I. Peppermint oil // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.