The 7.62-mm Kalashnikov assault rifle modernized (AKM, GRAU Index - 6P1 ) is an automatic machine, which was put into service in 1959 to replace the AK machine gun (GRAU Index - 56-A-212 ) and is its further development.
|Kalashnikov machine gun modernized|
|A country||the USSR|
|Years of operation||1959 - present|
|In service||see Operators|
|Wars and conflicts||Vietnam War |
Laos Civil War
Civil war in cambodia
Civil war in lebanon
Afghan war (1979-1989)
Somali Civil War
Georgian Civil War
Tajikistan Civil War
First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
The war in Afghanistan (2001-2014)
Narcována in Mexico
Armed conflict in South Ossetia (2008)
The fight against terrorism in the North Caucasus (2009-2017)
Libyan Civil War (2011)
Syrian Civil War
Iraq civil war
The Tuareg Uprising (2012—2013)
Armed conflict in the east of Ukraine
Yemen Civil War (since 2014)
|Constructor||Kalashnikov, Mikhail Timofeevich|
|Manufacturer||Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant|
|Years of production||1959 - 1977|
without ammunition / equipped
880/1020 (with a closed bayonet)
|Barrel length, mm||415|
|Cartridge||7.62 × 39 mm (See Cartridges ) |
|Caliber , mm||7.62|
|Work principles||removal of powder gases , butterfly valve|
|Rate of fire|
shots / min
|40 (single combat)|
100 (combat bursts)
~ 600 (technical) 
|starting speed |
bullets , m / s
|Sighting range , m||1000 |
|400 ( real fire )|
1500 ( slaughter bullet )
3000 (bullet flight) 
|Type of ammunition||detachable box magazine for 30 rounds (it is possible to use magazines from the PKK for 75 and 40 rounds)|
|Aim||sector (see sighting device )|
Differences from AK
The main differences of AKM from its predecessor  :
- AKMS ( Index GRAU - 6P4 ) - AKM version with a metal butt collapsing down under the forearm (adopted by order of the USSR Minister of Defense No. 232 of September 7, 1962). The butt-fastening system has been changed from the AKC. Butt raised to bring the point of emphasis to the line of fire. Modification designed specifically for paratroopers .
- AKML ( 6P1L ) is a variant of AKM on which a dovetail-type side mount was installed to install the NSP-3 night sight and a slit-type flame arrester instead of the standard compensator (flame arrester was developed specifically for the “L” complex and differs from the SVD and PC / PKM flame arresters; was needed to protect the night sight from the flash of light from the shot). The mass of the AKML rifle complex with a sight and without cartridges is 6.26 kg. Also there was a modification with a folding butt - AKMSL.
- AKMN ( 6P1N ) - a variant of the AKML, equipped with an NSP-3A sight. Modification with folding butt - AKMSN.
- AKMN-1 (6P1N-1) - a variant of the AKML, equipped with an NSPU sight. There is a modification with a folding butt.
- AKMN-2 (6P1N-2) - a variant with a night sight NSPUM. There is a modification with a folding butt.
AKM direct shot range:
- chest figure - 350 m,
- on a running figure - 525 m.
Concentrated fire is fought at a distance:
- for ground targets - up to 800 m,
- on air targets - up to 500 m.
The combat rate of fire is:
- when shooting single - up to 40 rounds per minute,
- when firing bursts - up to 100 rounds per minute.
The bullet maintains its slaughter effect at a range of up to 1500 m. The muzzle energy of a bullet is 2030 J (207 kgf · m )  .
Requirements for normal combat for AKM  :
- all four holes fit in a circle with a diameter of 15 cm;
- the middle point of contact deviates from the control point by no more than 5 cm in any direction.
The combat check is carried out by shooting single-handed on a test target or a black rectangle 35 cm high and 25 cm wide, fixed on a white shield 1 m high and 0.5 m wide. The firing range is 100 m, the position is lying down from the stop, the machine gun with a compensator without bayonet-knife, ammunition - with an ordinary bullet, sight - 3.
|Indicators of the total dispersion of bullets with a steel core when firing short bursts from the AKM reduced to normal combat  :|
|Firing range, m||Median deviations in height, cm||Median deviations in width, cm||Core stripes in height, cm||Core widths, cm||Bullet Energy, J|
Where the median deviation is half the width of the central dispersion band containing 50% of all hits, and the core strip is the dispersion band containing 70% of hits  . The total deviation includes the deviations of bullets and average hit points  .
Thanks to the applied improvements, the scatter over the height of the hits relative to the AK has decreased. For example, total median deviations at a distance of 800 m (vertical and wide):
- AK - 76 and 89 cm 
- AKM - 64 and 90 cm 
- PKK - 68 and 67 cm
- RPD - 46 and 43 cm 
- SCS - 38 and 29 cm 
|Weapons||Ammunition||Chuck weight||Mass of equipment store||The maximum amount of ammunition per 10 kg|
|AK (1949)||7.62 × 39 mm||16.2 g||30 patr. shop - 0.82 kg||12 stores - 9.2 kg for 360 rounds |
|M14 (1959)||7.62 × 51 mm NATO||25.4 g||20 patr. Shop - 0.75 kg||13 stores - 9.7 kg for 260 rounds |
|AKM (1959)||7.62 × 39 mm||16.2 g||30 patr. shop - 0.66 kg ||15 stores - 9.9 kg for 450 rounds|
|M16 (1962)||5.56 × 45 mm NATO (.223 Remington)||11.8 g||20 patr. Shop - 0.32 kg||31 stores - 9.93 kg for 620 rounds |
AKM consists of the following main parts and mechanisms:
- barrel with receiver, sighting device and butt;
- receiver cover;
- gas piston bolt;
- return mechanism;
- gas tube with receiver pad;
- trigger mechanism;
- bayonet knife.
The kit AKM includes: ramrod and pencil case with accessories (rubbing, brush, screwdriver, hammer out, hairpin, nipple), belt and bag for carrying stores. The AKMS package also includes a case for a machine with a pocket for a store.
The AKM sighting device consists of a front sight and a sight, which in turn consists of a sight sight, a leaf spring, an aiming bar and a clamp. A scale with divisions from 1 to 10 (firing range in hundreds of meters) and the letter “P” (permanent installation of the sight corresponding to sight 3) is applied on the reticle.
Attached to the automata of later releases are devices for shooting at night (self-luminous nozzle), consisting of a folding rear sight with a wide slit (mounted on the aiming bar) and a wide front sight (worn on the front sight of the weapon from above), on which luminous points are applied. This device is not separated during operation - when shooting during the day the front sight and rear sight fold down, without interfering with the use of standard sights.
Automation principle of operation
Work automation AKM based on the energy of the powder gases discharged from the barrel. When fired, a portion of the powder gases ejecting the bullet is directed through the hole in the barrel wall into the gas chamber , pressing on the front wall of the gas piston, rejecting the piston and the slide frame with the bolt in the rear position. The shutter opens the bore, the pressure of the powder gases extracts the cartridge case from the chamber and throws it out. The slide frame compresses the return spring and triggers the trigger on the self-timer.
Under the action of the return mechanism, the slide frame with the slide returns to the forward position. The bolt sends a new cartridge into the chamber and closes the barrel. The slide frame removes the sear self-timer from under the cock of the self-timer trigger.
Locking the bolt is carried out by turning to the right and, as a result, by passing of its combat projections beyond the combat stops of the receiver.
AKM is fired from 1943 rounds (7.62 × 39 mm) with the following types of bullets  :
- An ordinary steel core is designed to destroy enemy personnel, located openly or behind obstacles punched by a bullet. The casing is made of steel, covered with a tombac, the core is steel, and between the sheath and the core is a lead shirt. It does not have a distinctive color.
- tracer is designed to target and correct fire at distances up to 800 m, as well as to destroy enemy manpower. The core consists of an alloy of lead with antimony, behind it is a cup with a pressed tracer composition. The bullet color is green.
- The armor-piercing incendiary is intended to ignite flammable liquids, as well as defeat manpower behind lightly-armored shelters at ranges up to 300 m. The shell is with a tompacom tip, the core is steel with a lead shirt. Behind the core in the lead tray is incendiary composition. The color of the head is black with a red belt.
Assembly / Disassembly
Incomplete disassembly of the machine is made for cleaning, lubrication and inspection in the following order:
- separation of the store and checking the absence of the cartridge in the chamber;
- remove the case from the butt;
- separation rod;
- branch cover receiver;
- separation of the return mechanism;
- separation of the bolt carrier;
- separation of the shutter from the bolt;
- separation of the gas tube with the barrel lining.
Assembly after incomplete disassembly is performed in the reverse order.
A complete disassembly is done for cleaning when heavily soiled, after finding the machine in the rain or in the snow, when switching to a new lubricant or repairing it in the following order:
- incomplete disassembly;
- shop disassembly;
- disassembly of the return mechanism;
- disassembly of the shutter;
- dismantling of the firing mechanism;
- branch forearm.
Assembly after complete disassembly is performed in the reverse order.
In the summer (at temperatures above +5 ° C) it is necessary to use gun lubricant and RFS (barrel cleaning solution), and in winter (from +5 ° C to –50 ° C) - liquid gun lubricant (for lubrication and cleaning of carbon deposits) removing (washing all the metal parts in a liquid gun lubricant and wiping them with a clean cloth) before this summer lubricant. For storage in a warehouse for a long time, the machine is lubricated with a liquid gun grease, wrapped in one layer of inhibited, and then in one layer of waxed paper.
- Afghanistan 
- Albania 
- Algeria 
- Angola 
- Armenia 
- Azerbaijan 
- Bangladesh 
- Belarus 
- Benin 
- Bosnia and Herzegovina 
- Botswana 
- Bulgaria 
- Cambodia 
- Cape Verde 
- CAR 
- Chad 
- Chile 
- Comoros 
- Cuba 
- DR Congo 
- Djibouti 
- GDR 
- Egypt : Misr Option.     
- Equatorial Guinea 
- Eritrea 
- Estonia 
- Ethiopia 
- Finland 
- Gabon 
- Georgia 
- Guinea 
- Guinea-Bissau 
- Guyana 
- Hungary : Option AK-63 . [ten]
- India 
- Iran 
- Iraq 
- Israel 
- Kazakhstan 
- Kyrgyzstan 
- Laos 
- Latvia 
- Lesotho 
- Liberia 
- Libya 
- Lithuania 
- North Macedonia 
- Madagascar 
- Mali 
- Moldavia 
- Mongolia 
- Morocco 
- Mozambique 
- Nicaragua 
- DPRK : Option Type 68 . [ten]
- Pakistan : Type 56 Option [ten]
- Peru 
- Poland 
- Qatar 
- Republic of the Congo 
- Romania : Option PM md. 63 . [ten]
- Russia 
- Rwanda 
- Sao Tome and Principe 
- Seychelles 
- Sierra Leone 
- Slovenia 
- Somalia 
- USSR 
- Sudan 
- Suriname 
- Syria 
- Tajikistan 
- Tanzania 
- Togo 
- Turkey 
- Turkmenistan 
- Ukraine 
- UAE 
- Uzbekistan 
- Vietnam 
- Yemen 
- Yugoslavia 
- Zambia 
- Zimbabwe 
AKM at the exhibition Izhmash "Armory forge of Russia":
" Silence " based on AKM
AKML with NSP-3
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