Standing point or Orbital position - the position of a satellite in geostationary orbit .
Since a satellite in a geostationary orbit revolves around the Earth in the equatorial plane (0 ° latitude ), with a given angular velocity (1 revolution / 24 hours) and is always located above one point on the earth’s surface, it ’s enough to indicate only one magnitude: longitude. Longitude is equal to the geographical longitude of the point of the earth's equator , for which the satellite is at its zenith . This longitude is called a standing point or orbital position .
For each locality, the stationary points of geostationary satellites are constant, their position does not change with the time of day or throughout the year; the combination of these points forms the so-called "Clark belt" for a given area. Geostationary satellites, thanks to the available standing points, are convenient to use for satellite communications: once oriented antenna will always be directed to the selected satellite (if it does not change position).
Regulation and allocation of standing points
The International Telecommunication Union is responsible for the regulation, allocation and coordination of fixed points and frequency ranges for satellites located on the GSO. Standing points, as well as frequency ranges, due to their limitations, are a significant resource of the state. They may be sold or leased to other states. There may be several satellites at one standing point if their frequency ranges are very different. Satellites using similar or close frequency ranges should be located at a considerable distance from each other. In some cases, the distance between satellites should be at least 10 - 15 °, which allows placing on the GSO no more than 24 - 36 satellites of the same frequency range. Given that this amount falls on all countries of the world, it becomes clear how significant and expensive the “place on GSO / radio frequency” link is.
- Geostationary orbit (in the same place - calculation of GSO parameters: altitude, speed, etc.)
- List of geostationary satellites