Lateral system of navigation equipment ( lat. Laterālis “lateral”) - a system of navigation barriers for sections of the water surface or objects that are dangerous for swimming. One of two, along with the cardinal , systems of floating fencing of sea or river hazards .
The lateral system is used, as a rule, to enclose longitudinal ship passages having distinct sides. Such shipways include fairways , sea and river canals , and traffic lanes on rivers.
As warning signs are used buoys , buoys , milestones , as well as coastal fences in the form of lighthouses , targets and coastal signs.
The movement of vessels along the lateral system is carried out either between warning signs, or along the center line along which the signs stand. The sides of the fairway are uniquely tied either to the direction of the current on the rivers or to the direction from the sea.
It is necessary to distinguish between the coloring of the signs of the lateral system on the inland waterways (GDP) of Russia (USSR) and at sea. On GDP, the left (downstream) side is assigned white, and the right is red (see below). The signs of the marine lateral system are divided according to the type of coloring into two types: A and B. On navigational charts, it is necessary to indicate what type the area belongs to, for example: Region A - red on the left .
The International Association of Lighthouse Services (IALA) has adopted two types of lateral systems for the whole world that differ in the opposite color coding:
- Type A lateral system (“red on the left”) - left side: red signs, cylindrical (rectangular) shape buoys; right side: signs of white, black or green color, cones of a conical (triangular) shape. It is used in Europe, including Russia, Australia, partly in Africa, mainly in Asia, with the exception of the Philippines, Korea and Japan.
- Lateral system of type B (“red on the right”) - the colors of the signs are completely opposite to system A. It is used in North, Central and South America, the Philippines, Korea and Japan.
In Russia, belonging to Region A , the color designation of the sides in the sea estuaries has the following meaning: the sea lateral system is used on the sea side (red on the left when moving from the sea), and the river system on the river side (red on the river side on right). Since the river is directed towards the sea, red signs always indicate the same geographical side, only the arrangement of colors relative to the observer changes when the direction of movement changes. The boundaries between marine and river fencing systems are indicated on maps and in locations.
At the forks, the buoy is painted in two colors: on top - painting for the main course, below - for the secondary.
- Cardinal system