Kostenki is a village on the right bank of the Don in the Khokholsky district of the Voronezh region . The administrative center of Kostyensky rural settlement .
|Subject of the federation||Voronezh region|
|History and geography|
|Timezone||UTC + 3|
|Population||1438  people ( 2010 )|
|Telephone code||+7 47371|
It is world famous for the Paleolithic sites of ancient people discovered here, which are preserved by the local Kostenki Museum-Reserve .
In 1642, on the banks of the Don, the boyar’s son Bogdan Koninsky laid the city of Kostensk. It was a log fortress with a wooden Pokrovskaya church. In 1682 a cathedral church was erected in the name of John the Baptist .
The most ancient building in Kostenki is the rural government and post office of the 19th century. From the chalky hills overlooking Lake Pogonovo and other old lakes on the left bank.
Kostenki is recognized as the richest place in Russia in which the sites of early modern people are concentrated. Here, on the territory of about 10 km², over 60 sites are open (in a number of several dwellings, sometimes very large), dating from 37 to 18 thousand years ago ( Upper Paleolithic ). Numerous pieces of jewelry and works of art were found: small sculptural images of animals and world-famous female figurines - the so-called “Paleolithic Venus” .
While in Voronezh during the construction of the fleet in April 1696 , Peter I heard that gigantic bones were found near Kostensk  . After that, Filimon Katasonov, a soldier of the Preobrazhensky regiment, was sent to this city to collect information. This year can be considered the beginning of archaeological research in the Voronezh region.
In 1717, Peter I wrote in Voronezh to the Azov Vice Governor S. A. Kolychev (until 1725, Voronezh was the administrative center of the Azov province) that “he commanded in Kostensk and in other cities and counties of the province ... to look for great bones, both human and elephant and all sorts of other extraordinary. " Many of the bones found in Kostenki, Peter I “demanded his kunstkamera to St. Petersburg”. The emperor believed that the giant bones are the remains of the fighting elephants of Alexander the Great , "who went to fight the Scythians ."
In 1879, Professor of Petersburg University Ivan Semenovich Polyakov opened the Kostenki-1 parking lot. He extracted flint tools, spearheads, and other objects from the first pit pit that confirmed the existence of people in these places many centuries ago. Almost since then, Petersburg (Leningrad) scientists have set the tone for the study of this monument.
- 2010 All-Russian Population Census. Population of urban districts, municipal districts, urban and rural settlements, urban and rural settlements of the Voronezh region . The date of circulation is January 29, 2014. Archived January 29, 2014.
- Zagorovsky V.P. Voronezh: a historical chronicle. - Voronezh: Central Black Earth Book Publishing House, 1989. - 255 p.