Quiet ( lat. Tycho ) - 85-kilometer impact crater on the moon , in the southern part of the visible side . Named after the Danish astronomer and 16th century alchemist Tycho Brahe . This is one of the most interesting lunar craters : it is surrounded by the most visible on the moon system of light rays  , stretching for thousands of kilometers. They are especially clearly visible on the full moon , but are distinguishable even when illuminated only by the light of the Earth .
Tycho Crater (photo LRO )
|Average depth||4700 m|
The surroundings are quietly dotted with many other craters of different sizes. Some of them are secondary (formed by bodies ejected during the impact that created Tycho).
- 1 Description
- 2 Research and name
- 3 Spacecraft landing sites
- 4 Short-term lunar phenomena
- 5 Satellite craters
- 6 Links in fiction
- 7 Gallery
- 8 See also
- 9 notes
- 10 Literature
- 11 Links
Tycho is the youngest of the largest craters of the Moon: it appeared only 109 ± 4 million years ago  (in the Copernican period )  . Therefore, it is well preserved: it was not destroyed by subsequent strikes . The rays surrounding it, consisting of rocks ejected at its appearance, have not had time to disappear. Over time, they darken under the influence of space weathering , and therefore are not observed in ancient craters  . According to one theory, a crater could be formed by an asteroid belonging to the Baptistina family .
The immediate neighbors of the crater are Wilhelm Crater in the west; Heinzius Crater in the northwest; Sasserides crater in the north-north-east; Oronius Crater in the northwest; Pictet crater in the east; Street Crater in the south and Brown Crater in the west-south-west. To the north of the crater is the Sea of Clouds  .
Tycho's diameter is 85 km. The inner slope of the crater shaft has a pronounced terrace-like structure, in the center of the bowl there is a massive central peak towering 2.4 km above the bottom, and the crater shaft - on average 4.7 km  (at the highest point - more than 5 km  ) The composition of the central peak is gabbro – norito – troctolite anorthosite with a plagioclase content of 80–85% (GNTA2), anorthosite gabbro (AG), anorthosite gabbro-norite (AGN) and gabbro (G)  . The bottom of Tycho is quite bright, and outside it is surrounded by a dark ring about 60 km wide. Perhaps it is formed by material ejected by a blow from a depth. Then a bright surface begins again - a “halo”, turning into rays. There are more than a hundred of them at this crater  , Tycho crater is included in the list of craters with a bright ray system of the Association of Lunar and Planetary Astronomy (ALPO)  .
The longest ray, which, according to a popular version, belongs to the Tycho crater, bisects the Sea of Clarity and stretches for a distance of 4000 km from the crater (3/4 of the length of the lunar meridian)   . But it doesn’t start from Tycho itself, but already far from it (on the edge of the Sea of Clarity), and it is possible that its origin is connected with the Menelaus crater   .
Tycho Crater is a typical representative of craters with a diameter of over 50 km, which are characterized by the presence of a massive central peak, a pronounced terrace-like inner slope of the shaft and a relatively flat bottom of the bowl. Such craters are classified as TYC (by the name of the crater).
Research and title
Tycho Crater with the rays surrounding it was plotted on the lunar maps in the XVII century. So, it was marked on their maps by the Italian astronomer Francesco Fontana in 1629-1630 and the Czech astronomer and optician Anton-Maria Shirleus from Reita in 1645  . Various explorers of the moon gave this crater different names. Pierre Gassendi , who published in 1636 one of the best maps of the moon at that time  , called it Umbilicus Lunaris (" Navel of the Moon")  . The Dutch astronomer and cartographer Michael van Langren in 1645 gave him the name Vladislai IV in honor of the Polish king Vladislav IV   . Jan Hevelius in 1647 called the crater Mount Sinai ( Sinai Mons )  .
In 1651, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Riccioli , one of the founders of the modern nomenclature of lunar surface details, gave this crater the name of the Danish scientist Tycho Brahe  . Its crater name system came into use, and in 1935 this name was approved by the International Astronomical Union  . In addition, the 105-kilometer crater Tycho Brahe on Mars is named after Tycho Brahe  .
Spacecraft landing locations
- In January 1968, near the northern edge of Tycho, the American automatic station Surveyer-7 landed, transmitting data on the chemical composition of the soil and photographs of the surroundings.
- In 1972, the Apollo 17 astronauts took rock samples from the beam of this crater, 2,250 kilometers from Tycho (on the edge of the Sea of Clarity ), which made it possible to determine its age   .
Short Moon Phenomena
In Tycho Crater, short-term lunar phenomena were observed in the form of a change in the appearance of the dark border during eclipses, and the glow of rays in the earth's shadow.
These craters are called Tycho with the addition of a capital Latin letter  .
Links in fiction
- The lunar magnetic anomaly (LMA-1), according to the plot, located in the Tycho crater, appears in the work of Arthur Clarke “2001: A Space Odyssey” and the film of the same name.
- Crater is the location of Quiet City in Star Trek: First Contact ; lunar city in the XXIV century.
- In the film Men in Black , Agent Kay, a character of Tommy Lee Jones , mentions a violation by an alien of the “part 4153 of the Tycho Treaty ”.
- Clifford Saymak has a fantastic story The Trouble With Tycho (1961), in the Russian translation: "The Sinister Crater Tycho."
- In the science fiction novel of the Soviet writer George Martynov “ Gianei ” in the Tycho crater there was a secret base of alien devices - artificial Earth satellites .
- In a series of novels by Edmond Hamilton , Tycho Crater houses superhero base.
Shot of Tycho Crater from the Lunar Orbiter - V.
Polygonal melt cracks outside the Tycho Crater. Shot of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter probe.
Topographic model of the Tycho crater.
120 meter boulder at the top of the central peak. Shot of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter probe.
- List of Craters on the Moon
- Lunar crater
- Morphological catalog of Moon Craters
- Planetary nomenclature
- Mineralogy of the Moon
- Geology of the moon
- Late heavy bombardment
- Travels to the Moon, 2009 , V. Chikmachev. Chapter 3.13. Quiet and its surroundings, with. 166-175.
- Don E. Wilhelms. 17. Beautiful Taurus-Littrow 1972 // To a Rocky Moon: A Geologist's History of Lunar Exploration . - The University of Arizona Press, 1993. - P. 323. - ISBN 0-8165-1065-2 .
- Lunar Impact Crater Database . Losiak A., Kohout T., O'Sulllivan K., Thaisen K., Weider S. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Lunar Exploration Intern Program, 2009); updated by Öhman T. in 2011. Archived page .
- Titov Crater on the LAC-112 map.
- Margot, J.-L .; Campbell, DB; Jurgens, RF; Slade, MA The topography of Tycho Crater (Eng.) // Journal of Geophysical Research. - 1999. - Vol. 104 , no. E5 . - P. 11875-11882 . - DOI : 10.1029 / 1998JE900047 . - .
- Krüger, T .; van der Bogert, CH; Hiesinger, H. New High-Resolution Melt Distribution Map and Topographic Analysis of Tycho Crater // 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held March 18-22, 2013 in The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No. 1719, p. 2152: journal. - 2013. - .
- Stefanie Tompkins and Carle M. Pieters (1999) Mineralogy of the lunar crust: Results from Clementine Meteoritics & Planetary Science, vol. 34, pp. 25-41.
- List of craters with a bright ray system of the Association of Lunar and Planetary Astronomy (ALPO) (Link unavailable) . Date of treatment March 8, 2016. Archived March 4, 2016.
- Travels to the Moon, 2009 , V. Chikmachev. Chapter 3.4. Traces in the Sea of Clarity, p. 104-110.
- Wood CA Whence the Bessel Ray? (English) (inaccessible link) . lpod.org (May 28, 2004). Date of treatment August 31, 2014. Archived on August 29, 2014.
- Grego P. The Moon and How to Observe It . - Springer Science & Business Media, 2006. - P. 183. - 285 p. - ISBN 978-1-846-28243-0 .
- Whitaker EA Mapping and Naming the Moon: A History of Lunar Cartography and Nomenclature . - Cambridge University Press, 2003. - P. 30–33, 48, 198. - 264 p. - ISBN 9780521544146 .
- Travels to the Moon, 2009 , Rodionova J.F. Chapter 5. History of lunar maps, p. 205.
- Map of the Moon by Michael van Langren (1645)
- Hevelius J. Selenographia sive Lunae descriptio . - Gedani : Hünefeld, 1647. - P. 226–227, 234. - DOI : 10.3931 / e-rara-238 . ( List of titles on p. 234 )
- Map of the Moon by Giovanni Riccioli (1651)
- Tycho . Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature . International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) (October 18, 2010). Date of treatment October 18, 2014. Archived December 14, 2012.
- According to the IAU Handbook as of 2014.
- Travels to the Moon / Ed. V. G. Surdin. - Moscow: Fizmatlit, 2009 .-- 512 p. - ISBN 978-5-9221-1105-8 .
- Digital photographic atlas of the moon.
- Pictures of the crater from the side of Apollo 10, Apollo 14.
- Maps: crater and its western surroundings
- Selenological map of the vicinity of the crater.
- Tycho Central Peak Spectacular!
- Chaotic crater floor in Tyco.
- Polygonal fractures on Tycho ejecta deposits.
- Ejecta in Tycho crater.
- Impact melt features in Tycho crater's floor.
- 60 of Tyco.
- Transformative Image.
- And the Walls came Tumbling Down.
- Ballistic Rake.
- What? More tycho?
- Abrasion and Rhino Hide.
- 14 inches of Tycho (extraordinary telescopic hi-res photograph, by George Tarsoudis).
- Quiet on The-Moon Wiki.
- Andersson, LE, and EA Whitaker, NASA Catalog of Lunar Nomenclature, NASA Reference Publication 1097, October 1982.