The Crimean language ( ust. Jack  , the Crimean . Krytsӏay mez ) is the language of rats living in the north-eastern part of Azerbaijan . Belongs to the Lezgi languages of the Nakh-Dagestan language family . It is genetically closest to the Budukh language , with which it forms a separate subgroup. Historically, the Kryz and Bukhuk languages go back to some single area of the pre-lingual state. Sometimes they also speak of Shahdag languages , in which, according to the principle of geographical proximity and isolation, they combine the Crimean and Budukh languages along with the Khinalug languages, which occupy a special place among the Nakh-Dagestan languages.
|Self name||Krytsӏai mez|
|Total number of speakers||up to 9000  , up to 5000 |
|Category||Languages of Eurasia|
North Caucasian superfamily
|Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger|
In the 1990s the total number of native speakers was estimated at 6-8 thousand - mainly in Gubinsky (high-mountain villages Alyk , Jack , Kryz , Haput , Kryz-Dehn , Ergyuzh ), Ismayilli (Haputly, Mollaisakhly, Gadzhigatemly, etc.) and Khachmaz regions of the republic, and also in the Gusar , Zerdab , Gabala regions , Shemakha region , in the cities of Baku , Sumgait , Guba , Ismayilli .
The latest sociolinguistic study (2001) showed that the number of native speakers of the Crimean language in the high-mountain villages of the Cuban region decreased to about 1-2 thousand, and another approximately the same number of people speak the Crimean language (Haputli dialect) in the Haputli villages of Ismayilli district [2 ] . The language is spellingless. It is used mainly in the domestic sphere. Most adult native speakers of the Crimean language also speak Azerbaijani   . This is facilitated by such factors as living in the same territory with the Azerbaijani population, the use of Azerbaijani as the language of schooling, office work, means of communication with representatives of other national groups, during social, political, cultural and other events. The rats of individual villages also use the Lezgi language as a means of interethnic communication.
As a 2001 study showed, maintaining a trend towards the outflow of the Crimean population from highland villages can play a decisive role in the fate of the Crimean language. In the lowland villages, the Crimean language generally failed to gain a foothold even as the language of home communication. As a result of this, children in Crimean families from the very beginning used the Azerbaijani language, referring to the Crimean language only as the language of their ancestors. Although most of the rats who migrated to the flat territories are settled compactly with other native speakers of the Crimean language, extensive contacts with the Azerbaijani-speaking environment led to the fact that the Azerbaijani language began to function as a communication language  .
In 2012, Google launched the Endangered Languages (Endangered Languages) project, in which the Crimean language was described as “near extinction”, and the number of its speakers was estimated at 5-8 thousand  [7 ] ]
The Crimean language breaks up into a number of dialects and island dialects and subjugations (until the middle of the 20th century, these dialects were considered as separate languages    ). Dialects are mutually understood, despite significant differences in grammar and phonetic system , including those related to innovations that have arisen under the influence of the dialects of the Azerbaijani language  .
The main dialects   :
- Crimean-Ergyuksky (Crimean)
Among the Lezgi languages, the Crimean language is distinguished by relatively developed vocalism , the absence of non-inhalative, limited use of abruptives , the disappearance of labialized variants of a number of consonants  .
In the field of grammar, vocabulary and phonetics, a strong influence of the Azerbaijani language is noticeable - both literary and local dialects  .
Cursory information about the "Jack language" is available from A. Dyrr  . The German ethnographer R. Erkert in the comparative dictionary of Caucasian languages in 1895 cited 535 “Jack” words and about 60 phrases, and also gave a brief grammatical description of the language  . A small vocabulary material on the Crimean language is cited by R. M. Shaumyan . He also published the first information about the grammatical structure of the Crimean language (1940)  .
In 1964, under the guidance of a Caucasian expert Yu. D. Desheriev, the dissertation “Basic grammatical categories of a verb in the Crimean language (in comparison with the corresponding categories in Lezgi and Khinalug languages )” was defended by Veli Khidirov . A complete study of the grammatical structure and vocabulary of the Crimean language was undertaken in a doctoral dissertation by Sh. M. Saadiev (1972).
In 2004, a young French Caucasian scholar Gilles Otier defended his doctoral dissertation at the University of Paris VII on the description of the Crimean language  . In 2009, his grammar of the Alyk dialect of the Crimean language (in French) was published in Paris .
- Linguistics: a large encyclopedic dictionary. Ed. Artseva V. N., Arutyunova N. D. M.: “The Big Russian Encyclopedia”, 1998, 682 p.
- John M. Clifton, Janfer Mak, Gabriela Deckinga, Laura Lucht, and Calvin Tiessen. The Sociolinguistic Situation of the Kryz in Azerbaijan (SIL International 2005)
- UNESCO Red Book of Languages
- Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary. // Editor-in-chief V.N.Yartseva. Moscow, "Soviet Encyclopedia", 1990
- Humphreys, Andrew and Krista Mits, eds. 1994. The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
- Google found rare languages to be preserved in Azerbaijan - 1NEWS.AZ
- Endangered Languages Project - Kryts
- Saadiev Sh. M. Crimean language. Languages of the peoples of the USSR, Volume 4. Institute of Linguistics (USSR Academy of Sciences). Ed. Vinogradov V.V.M .: Nauka, 1966
- V. G. Gadzhiev . "The work of I. Gerber" Description of countries and peoples between Astrakhan and the Kura River located "as a historical source on the history of the peoples of the Caucasus." - Science, 1979. - S. 226
- Languages of the peoples of the USSR: in 5 volumes. Iberian-Caucasian languages. - M: Nauka , 1967. - T. 4. - S. 545-559. - ISBN 627-641.
- Languages of the Russian Federation and neighboring states: KR. - M: Nauka , 1997. - T. 2. - P. 155. The Crimean language is divided into four dialects: the Crimean-Ergyuzhsky dialect is represented in 29 villages, Haputlinsky in eight, Jack in six, Alyk in one.
- Dirr A. Einfuehrung in das Studium der kaukasischen Sprachen. Leipzig, 1928
- Erckert R. "Die Sprachen des Kaukasischen Stammes". - Wien-1895 - s. 296-298
- Shaumyan R. M. Japhetic languages of the “Shahdag subgroup” (preliminary communication). - Language and thinking, T. X. M. - L., 1940
- French scientist is interested in Azerbaijan: For five years he studied the Crimean language, now he is going to switch to Budukh (Inaccessible link) . Date of treatment March 11, 2008. Archived June 11, 2010.
- Shykhbal Kryzly (Suleymanov) "Kryz ve Kryz Dili." Baku, 2002
- Saadiev Sh. M. “Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary. Crimean language "
- Saadiev Sh. M. Kryz language // Languages of the peoples of the USSR. T.IV, M., 1967.
- Talibov B. B. “Languages of the Russian Federation and neighboring states. Tom. II. Crimean language "
- GRAMMAIRE KRYZ (LANGUE CAUCASIQUE D'AZERBAÏDJAN, DIALECTE D'ALIK)
- Khidirov V.S. Verb in the Crimean language. Baku, 2007.368 s.