At the first and second peace conferences in The Hague  in 1899 and 1907, international conventions on the laws and customs of war were adopted, which were included in the complex of norms of international humanitarian law  .
First Hague Conference of 1899
The peace conference was convened at the initiative of the Emperor of Russia Nicholas II on August 29, 1898. The conference opened on May 18 (6), on the birthday of the Emperor, and was held on July 29 (17). 26 countries participated ( Russia , Ottoman Empire , Germany , Austria-Hungary , Italy , France , Spain , Great Britain , Netherlands , Belgium , Switzerland , Sweden , Denmark , Bulgaria , Serbia , Montenegro , Greece , Portugal , Liechtenstein , Luxembourg , Japan , China , Siam , Persia , USA , Mexico ). The chairman is Baron Staal  .
Adopted 3 conventions:
- On the peaceful resolution of international clashes;
- On the laws and customs of the land war;
- On the application of the Geneva Convention to the naval war on August 10, 1864.
And also 3 declarations:
- On the prohibition for a five-year period of throwing shells and explosives from balloons or using other similar new methods;
- On the non-use of shells having the sole purpose of distributing asphyxiating or harmful gases;
- On the non-use of bullets that are easily deployed or flattened in the human body  .
Second Hague Conference of 1907
The peace conference was held from June 2 (15) to October 5 (18). Representatives of 44 countries participated: Austria-Hungary , Argentina , Belgium , Bulgaria , Bolivia , Brazil , Great Britain , Venezuela , Haiti , Guatemala , Germany , Greece , Denmark , Dominican Republic , Italy , Spain , China , Colombia , Cuba , Luxembourg , Mexico , Netherlands , Nicaragua , Norway , Ottoman Empire , Panama , Paraguay , Persia , Peru , Portugal , Russia , Romania , El Salvador , Serbia , Siam , USA , Uruguay , France , Montenegro , Chile , Switzerland , Sweden , Ecuador , Japan .
The chairman of the conference is the “First Commissioner” of the Russian delegation, the Russian ambassador in Paris, Doctor of Technical Sciences A. I. Nelidov .
13 conventions were adopted:
i Convention for the Peaceful Resolution of International Clashes
ii Convention on the Restriction of the Use of Force in the Recovery of Contractual Debt Obligations
iii Convention on the Discovery of Hostilities
iv Convention on the Laws and Customs of the Land War
v Convention on the Rights and Obligations of Neutral Powers and Persons in the Event of a Land War
vi Convention on the situation of enemy merchant ships at the outbreak of hostilities
vii Convention for the Treatment of Merchant Ships in Military Courts
viii Convention on the setting of submarines automatically detonating from contact by mines
ix Convention on the Naval Bombardment in Time of War
x Convention on the Application of the Geneva Convention to the Naval War (subsequently superseded by the 1949 Geneva Convention)
xi Convention on Certain Restrictions on the Use of Capture in Naval Warfare
xii Convention Establishing the International Prize Chamber (not entered into force)
xiii Convention on the Rights and Obligations of Neutral Powers in the Event of Naval War .
- On the prohibition of throwing shells and explosives from balloons.
Third Hague Conference
The Third Hague Conference was scheduled for 1915, but did not take place in connection with the First World War  .
- Conventions adopted at conferences were initially numbered in Roman numerals; the numbering of conventions and conferences does not naturally coincide.
- S. S. Oldenburg. The reign of Nicholas II. M: AST: Astrel, 2008. ISBN 978-5-271-20683-2 , p. 116
- Declaration on the Disuse of Easily Deploying and Flattening Bullets
- Preparation for the Third Hague Peace Conference . // Report. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1915.P. 134. (English)
- The Hague Peace Conference of 1899 // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- The second conference of the world 1907. St. Petersburg., 1908.
- Nikolaev N. Yu. Germany and The Hague Peace Conference of 1899 // Bulletin of the Volgograd State University . Ser. 4, History. Regional studies. International relationships. - 2005. - Issue. 10. - S. 43-47.
- Rybachenok I.S. Russia and the First Peace Conference of 1899 in The Hague / I.S. Fisherwoman; Grew up. Acad. Sciences, Inst. stories. - M.: [[ROSSPEN]], 2005. - 391,  p.
- Schücking, Walther. The International Union of the Hague Conferences. - Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1918.
- Trueblood, Benjamin F. The Federation of the World. - Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co, 1899.
- Hudson, Manley O. Present Status of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 (Eng.) // The American Journal of International Law : journal. - 1931. - January ( vol. 25 ). - P. 114-117 . - DOI : 10.2307 / 2189634 .
- Schlichtmann, Klaus. Japan, Germany and the Idea of the two Hague Peace Conferences (Eng.) // Journal of Peace Research : journal. - 2003. - Vol. 40 , no. 4 . - P. 377-394 . - DOI : 10.1177 / 00223433030404002 .