Nagoya Castle ( Jap. 名古屋 城 Nagoya-jo:) is an ancient Japanese castle located in the city center of Nagoya ( Aichi Prefecture , Japan ).
Main tower of Nagoya Castle
|Building||1610 - 1612 years|
Built in 1612 as the main castle of the branch of the Tokugawa shogun family from Owari province . Until 1871, he served as the political and administrative center of the Owari principality . In 1872-1930, he was under the administration of the government of the Japanese Empire , after which he became the property of the city of Nagoya . Until 1945, it was on the list of National Treasures of Japan , but was destroyed by US aircraft during World War II . Partially rebuilt in 1959 from reinforced concrete with donations from residents of the city of Nagoya.
Nagoya Castle is a flat castle . It consists of five levels and seven floors, inside the castle there is a museum of the history of the city of Nagoya. Typical architectural features of the Azuchi-Momoyam period are characteristic of the exterior of the castle. [one]
Today serves as a museum and a symbol of Nagoya. Included in the number of national historical monuments of Japan
Period of civil strife
Nagoya Castle owes its origin to the fortress "Willow Yard" ( Jap. 柳 ノ ) . In the first half of the 16th century, it was erected by the ruler of the eastern province of Suruga , Imagawa Udzitika , as an outpost in the western province of Owari . It is believed that this fortress was located in the second courtyard of the modern Nagoya castle. In 1532 it was captured by the ruler of Ovari, Oda Nobuhide , and renamed Nagoya Castle (the old spelling “Nagoya” in Japanese: 那 古 野).
For several years, this castle served as the residence of Nobuhide, but he subsequently transferred it to his 5-year-old son, Ode Nobunage . The latter stayed in it until 1555, before transferring his stakes to the neighboring castle Kiyosu . After this, the Nagoya fortress was abandoned and was empty for a long time.
Historically, Kiyosu played the role of the center of the Owari province, but due to a change in the political situation after the Battle of Sekigahara and Kiyosu’s vulnerability to floods, in 1609, the new shogun of Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu, decided to transfer the Owari possessions center to Nagoya, ordering the castle to be laid in it. In 1610, politically objectionable West Japanese feudal lords received a government order and began building the Nagoya Castle.
Five were appointed responsible for the construction  , and nine dignitaries were appointed as work managers  . The marking of the territory involved Makino Sukeemon. Stone walls of the castle were erected by handicraft groups of various grandees, and the stone foundation of the main tower was built according to the design of Kato Kiyomasa , who had considerable experience in castle construction. The construction of the tower itself was led by Kobori Masakazu , and the carpentry was performed by a group of artisans under the direction of Nakai Masakiyo  . By 1612 almost the entire five-story main tower, the main symbol of the castle, was ready.
During construction, there was a shift of population from Kiyosu to Nagoya. It lasted from 1612, when the construction of the settlement settlement and distribution of land plots began, until 1616, when a new owner, Tokugawa Yoshinao , patriarch of the Tokugawa family, Owari, entered the castle. As a result, a large number of samurai, wimps and merchants moved to Nagoya. Three Shinto shrines, 110 Buddhist temples and a small tower of Kiyosu castle were also transferred to the city.
Nagoya Castle had a pompous appearance. The golden charms of the syatikhoko glittered on the roof of the five-story main tower and were visible tens of kilometers from Nagoya. The castle had five main courtyards, in the main of which was a luxurious palace for Owari's ruler and the reception of the shoguns. In 1634, after visiting Nagoya with the 3rd Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu during his trip to Kyoto , a large palace was built in the second courtyard of the castle in which the country's highest military leader could continue to stay. In the same place, in the second court, the largest Japanese garden by then standards was located - the main resting place of the rulers of Nagoya.
After the elimination of the Tokugawa shogunate and the restoration of direct imperial rule in 1868, Tokugawa Yoshikatsu , the 14th ruler of the Owari principality and the owner of the castle in Nagoya, proposed the new government to destroy this castle and transfer the golds to the state treasury. However, the German ambassador Max von Brant and the colonel of the Japanese army Nakamura Shigeo filed a complaint, thanks to which the head of the Japanese military ministry Yamagata Aritomo decided to keep part of the castle, leaving its main tower and main courtyard intact.
Since 1872, in addition to the main courtyard, the third division of the Tokyo garrison was stationed in the castle courtyards, which in 1873 was reorganized into the Nagoya garrison, and from 1888 it became the 3rd division of the Imperial Army of Japan . The main headquarters of this division was located in the castle until 1945.
In 1891, Nagoya was struck by the strong earthquake of Mino-Ovari , as a result of which the main courtyard of the castle was damaged: the south-western corner tower and the Tamón tower collapsed, and the main tower and the palace were seriously damaged. In 1893, this court passed from the military ministry under the control of the Ministry of the imperial house and received the name of the Nagoya Imperial Villa. In 1930, the status of the villa was canceled, and the castle was transferred to the city of Nagoya .
The local government opened the villa, presented by the Emperor of Japan to the people of Nagoya, for public viewing and achieved the entry of old buildings and color wall paintings of the building into the register of the country's national treasures . Unfortunately, these valuables — the palace of the main courtyard, the main tower, the north-western corner tower, the main gate — burned down in a fire in 1945, which was caused by the target bombardment of the castle by US aircraft at the end of World War II ( they managed to save golden the wars were removed from them so that they did not serve as a reference point for the enemy aircraft; they also saved some of the wall paintings).
After the war, the castle ruins, with the exception of the third courtyard, were turned into a park "Nagoya Castle". It preserved three towers and three gates unscathed, as well as part of the garden of the second courtyard. Also, almost the entire foundation of the castle, along with moats, beams and the foundations of the gate, remained in relatively good condition.
In 1959, the main tower of the Nagoya Castle was restored with donations from public organizations and residents of Nagoya. It became another symbol of the city, along with golden syatikhokho (since World War II, they were kept in the museum, but in July 2005 they were again installed on the roof of the main tower). Since the completion of the restoration works, the tower has been operating as a museum.
After the restoration of the main tower, it was planned to restore the palace of the main courtyard of the castle, but in the late 1980s, the Japanese economy was in crisis , and no funds were received. In 2002, the public organization Forum of the Main Courtyard Palace, founded in May 1994, resumed the collection of funds and donations. After 5 years, the Agency for Cultural Affairs of the Ministry of Sport, Education and Culture of Japan gave permission for the restoration of the palace. Work on its restoration began in 2008. They are planned to be completed by 2022.
To increase the popularity of Nagoya Castle in Japan and abroad, on April 6, 2006, it was listed as one hundred best Japanese castles ( Jap. 日本 100 城 ) .
- List of castles in Japan
- article “Under the protection of golden dolphins” Archival copy of April 30, 2005 on the Wayback Machine on the website “ Japan Today ”
- Magical symbolism in the Japanese architecture of the Karafuto period - article on the site http://www.sakhalin.ru/
- Takigawa Tadayuki (滝 川 忠 征), Sakuma Tadazane (佐 久 間 政 実) and others. 社 ヶ 谷 恭 弘 著 『ポ ケ ケ ッ ト 図 鑑 鑑 城 城 社 主婦 の 友 社 1995 年
- Okubo Nagayasu (大 久保 長安), Kobori Masakazu (小 堀 一) and others. 社 ヶ 谷 恭 弘 著 『ポ ケ ケ ッ ト 図 鑑 鑑 城 城 社 主婦 の 友 社 1995 年
- There is a theory that the head of the carpenters was not Nakai Masakiyo (中 井 正 清), but Okabe Mataemon (岡 部 又 右衛門)