The Orleans House is the name of some branches of the Capetian house: in the 15th century, the Valois dynasty , and from the 17th century, the Bourbon dynasty .
County Orleans - an ancient possession of the French kings - since 1344 has been granted several times to the younger sons of the royal house (with the provision of the title of duke).
The first Duke of Orleans was Philip ( 1336 - 1375 ), the 4th son of King Philip VI , who did not leave offspring.
After his death, Charles VI gave the duchy to his brother Louis (1372–1407), the ancestor of the Orleans branch of the house of Valois . The Duke of Louis, who enjoyed the favor of Queen Isabella, in 1404 , due to dementia of Charles VI, was appointed ruler of the state. With his extravagance and heavy requisitions, he instigated a rebellion in Paris, led by the Duke John the Fearless . Louis was killed, leaving 5 sons and 3 daughters from a marriage with Milanese Valentina Visconti . [one]
The claims of the descendants of Louis and Valentina on the inheritance of the Duchy of Milan were a prerequisite for the Italian Wars . Their eldest son, Carl, the Duke of Angouleme (1391-1465) became the third Duke of Orleans. When the son of Karl Louis in 1498 ascended the French throne under the name of Louis XII, the possessions of the Orleans House reunited with the French crown.
Then, the Duchy of Orleans was owned, before accession to the throne, by Henry II , Charles IX and Henry III .
Representatives of the Orleans House can also be considered the descendants of Count Jean de Dunois (1402-68) - the legitimate illegitimate son of the Duke of Louis I. They owned the county of Longville, which Louis XII raised to the duchy.
Louis XIII gave in 1626 the Duchy of Orleans and the county of Blois to his brother Gaston ( 1608 - 1660 ). Opponent of Cardinal Richelieu , the Duke of Gaston of Orleans, was forced to flee France several times; in the wars of the Fronde he repeatedly passed from one side to the other. In 1652 , he recruited an army for Prince Conde; when the king and Mazarin prevailed, he was expelled to his castle of Blois, where he died. His daughter from his first marriage with Maria Montpensier was Anna, the Duchess of Montpensier ( 1627 - 1693 ), known as Grand Mademoiselle. The second time, Gaston of Orleans was married to Margarita of Lorraine. 
After his death, Louis XIV gave the duchy of Orleans to his brother Philip ( 1640 - 1701 ), the ancestor of the now existing Bourbon-Orleans line.
Duke Philip I also took possession of the Duchy of Valois, Chartres, Nemours and Montpensier. He took part in the Dutch campaigns; recalled by his brother out of jealousy for his successes, he then led a distracted and unrestrained life. From his first marriage with Henrietta Stewart , he had two daughters: Maria Louise ( 1662 - 1689 ), was married to the King of Spain Charles II , and Anna Maria ( 1669 - 1728 ) did not leave offspring to the Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II .
The son of Philip of Orleans from his second marriage with Elizabeth of Pfalz , Philip, Duke of Chartres ( 1674 - 1723 ), as the Duke of Orleans is known as Philip II, and in the history of France - as regent. Richly gifted by nature, from an early age he was distinguished by extreme licentiousness. During the siege of Mons, in the battles of Steenkerken and Nervinden, he showed great courage. In the War of the Spanish Succession, under Turin, he lost the battle to Prince Eugene, but won a number of victories in Spain. Having conquered Valencia and Aragonia, in 1708 he entered Madrid. Here he began secret negotiations, hoping to achieve the Spanish crown, but was recalled to France. After the death of Louis XIV (1715), during the infancy of King Louis XV, he became regent of France  .
From the marriage of Philip II to Francoise María ( 1677 - 1749 ) Mademoiselle de Blois, the late daughter of Louis XIV (from Mrs. Montespan ), was born Louis I, Duke of Orleans ( 1703 - 1752 ), who lost his wife early, spent most of his life in Abbey St. Genevieve, indulging in scientific studies.
He was succeeded by his son Louis Philippe ( 1725 - 1785 ), who in his youth took part in the Dutch campaigns (1742-1744), and in adulthood he was especially interested in stage art. The man is very enlightened, he was the first in France to vaccinate smallpox for his children.
The son of the latter, Louis-Philippe-Joseph ( 1747 - 1793 ), is known as Philippe-Egalite.
The son of Philip Egalite Louis-Philippe I , was elevated to the French throne by the July Revolution.
From Mary Amalia, Princess of Sicily, Louis Philippe I had 8 children. The eldest son Ferdinand, the Duke of Chartres ( 1810 - 1842 ), and after the accession of his father to the throne - the Duke of Orleans and the Crown Prince, received a good education; participated in the years 1835-1840 in the actions of the Algerian army. The sudden death of the popular prince, due to a jump from the crew whose horses were carried, was a strong blow to the Orleans dynasty  .
The other four sons:
- Louis of Orleans, Duke de Nemours ,
- Francois of Orleans, Prince de Joinville ,
- Henry of Orleans, Duke of Omal
- Antoine of Orleans, Duke de Montpensier ,
and three daughters:
- Louise Maria - wife of the Belgian King Leopold I ,
- Maria - was married to the Duke Alexander of Württemberg,
- Clementine is the wife of Prince Augustus of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, mother of the king of Bulgaria Ferdinand I  .
From his marriage to Elena, Princess of Mecklenburg, Ferdinand had two sons: Louis Philippe ( 1838 - 1894 ), Count of Paris, candidate for the French throne and Robert ( 1840 - 1910 ), Duke of Chartres.
After the death of the Earl of Paris, the head of the Orleans House was considered his son Louis-Philippe-Robert, Duke of Orleans ( 1869 - 1926 ), who in 1896 married the Archduke of Austria of Austria, Dorothea. He died childless and the title of head of the Orleans house passed to the husband of his sister Isabella - their cousin Jean ( 1874 - 1940 ), son of Robert, Duke of Chartres .
Today, the head of the house is their great-grandson - a contender for the French throne, Prince Jean of Orleans (born 1965).
Existing House Branches
- The eldest branch, the descendants of Ferdinand of Orleans . The heads of this branch are contenders for the throne of France.
- A branch of Orleans-Braganans, descendants of Louis of Orleans, Duke de Nemours , whose eldest son Gaston ( 1842 - 1922 ) married Isabella Braganza ( 1846 - 1921 ), the imperial princess of Brazil. Currently, this branch is divided into two, and their heads dispute the status of the heir to the Brazilian throne.
- The Orleans-Gallier branch, descendants of Antoine of Orleans ( 1824 - 1890 ), bore the title of Infants of Spain until 1997 .
- Earls of Orleans
- Dukes of Orleans
- Bourbons // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Orleans House // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- See Jarry, “La vie politique de Louis de France, duc d'O.” (P., 1889).
- Wed “Mémoires du duc d'O.” (Amsterdam, 1683; 2 ed., 1756).
- Compare: Vie du duc d'O. - 1757.
Piossens Mémoires de la Régence. - P. , 1749.
Capefigue . Philippe d'O., Regent de France. - 1838.
Wiesener . Le Régent, l'abbé Dubois et les Anglais. - 1891-1894.
- Compare: Mendelssohn . Ferdinand-Philipp, Herz. v.-O. - 1842.
- Compare: Laurentre . Histoire des ducs d'O. - P. , 1832–34.
Yriarte . Les princes d'O. - 1872.