Islamic Society of Afghanistan (IOA) (Hezb-e Jamiat-e Islami Afghanistan, Jamiat-e-Islomii-Afghonistoni) , ( Dari : جمعیت اسلامی افغانستان) - one of the two largest and most influential parties in the republic Afghanistan from 1960 to the 2000s. The most numerous of the opposition parties that make up the Peshawar Seven is the Alliance of Seven . It gained the greatest fame during the years of the Afghan war (1979-1989) , becoming an organized opposition force in the struggle of Afghan mujahideen against the presence of a limited contingent of Soviet troops in Afghanistan and the Afghan government of Babrak Karmal , and later - during the period 1979-1992 of the reign of Najibullah . Along with another major influential party - the Islamic Party of Afghanistan (IPA ) Gulbuddin Hekmatyar - shared leadership in the military-political alliance " Peshawar Seven . " It was financed by special services of the USA , a number of European and Asian countries. Along with other Islamic parties represented in the Alliance of Seven , it received CIA funds as part of the Cyclone special operation . The IOA party had a significant influence among the majority of the non- Pashtun part of the population - Tajiks , Uzbeks , Hazaras , Charaimaks , Pamiris , Turkmen , etc. the few peoples of Afghanistan .
|Islamic Society of Afghanistan|
The IOA had the overwhelming majority of supporters in the Afghan provinces - Badakhshan , Tahar , Bamyan , Balkh , Faryab , Jauzjan , Badghiz , Herat , Kabul , Parvan , Panjshir , Kapisa and others , and partially - in the provinces of Kunduz , Baghlan , Ghazni , Farah , Daykundi and etc. , where power was shared with the IPA .
IOA originates from the first Islamic political organization, which began to form in the late 1950s - early 1960s. The party’s earliest name, “Javanan-e of Muslims” (Muslim youth), was in the early 1960s, when the party was headed by Gulam Mohammad Niyazi, the famous “professor of Theology” in Kabul. The new name - "Islamic Society of Afghanistan" (IOA) - the party received in 1973. In the same 1973, Burhanuddin Rabbani , a professor of theology at Kabul University, became its new leader.
The period of the most active activity of the IOA fell on the Afghan war of 1979-1989. The Supreme Council of the IOA party included Burhanuddin Rabani, Ahmad Shah Masud, Ismail Khan, Abdullah Abdullah and other party and state figures.
Ahmad Shah Masoud, Ismail Khan, Mohammad Atta Nur and other influential field commanders of the IOA had control over the strategic territories and formed the backbone of the militarized wing of the party, providing authority and support to the local population.
Burhanuddin Rabbani is the most moderate politician among the leaders of the fundamentalist parties of Afghanistan. His party has many supporters and party cells, not only among Tajiks , but also among Pashtuns , Uzbeks, and other ethnic groups throughout Afghanistan.
IOA representatives have traditionally led a number of administrations in the provinces and counties. The party at the right time always had supporters in government circles and law enforcement agencies.
The IOA sought to ensure the election of the largest number of its supporters to parliament and, with a majority, lead it. In the 2004 presidential election, most of the IOA supported H. Karzai; Burkhanutdin’s son-in-law Rabbani and Ahmad Shah Masud’s brother Ahmad Ziya Masoud ran for the post of first vice president together with Karzai. Immediately after the Bonn conference, an official split in the Rabbani party was announced. Supporters of Ahmad Shah Masoud left the IOA and already in 2002 created a new party called the National Movement of Afghanistan (NDA) (Nakhzat-e Melliye Afghanistan) .
The history of the creation of this party dates back to the early 1980s. In 1983, a structure called the “Supervisory Board” (“Shura-ye nazzar”) was established under the IOA, headed by Ahmad Shah Masoud . The task of “Shura-ye nazzar”, according to Masoud himself, was to create a fundamentally new system of command and control of the armed groups of the IOA. Masood, in turn, decided to unite under his command the IOA units in the north and outside of Panjshir .
The tasks of “Shura-ye nazzar” included not only the coordination of military operations and their management, but also the solution of purely civilian tasks: the management of territories under the control of Masoud’s forces. Gradually, “Shura-ye nazzar” turned into an almost independent organization within the IOA - with its supporters, its views on the political structure of the country, its print organ, etc. Analyzing the difficult biography of Ahmad Shah Masoud , one can understand that he always sought to be independent independent of anyone.
In Panjshir, he achieved this, including the creation of Shura-ye nazzar, but he always emphasized that this was not a political party. At the same time, according to the memoirs of his brother Ahmad Vali, he was dissatisfied with the activities of all Islamic political parties and movements (presumably, including the IOA) and hatched plans to create his own political party.
During the years of the war against the Taliban , rumors were often circulated about the existence of serious disagreements between the “Supervisory Board” of Masoud and the IOA, but, in any case, common goals and a common enemy united them.
Memoirs of Army General M. Gareev
According to the book “My Last War” (Afghanistan without Soviet Forces), Army General M. Gareev:
The Islamic Society of Afghanistan is one of the fundamentalist organizations founded by professor of theology B. Rabbani on the basis of the Muslim Youth Union. It was the second largest and most organized opposition organization after the IPA.
The total number of armed detachments in Afghanistan is 48,200, of which 25,300 are actively active, and 11,000 in Pakistan. Leaders of the largest formations: Ahmad Shah Masoud, Turan Ismail, Abdul Basir and others. The program and charter of the IOA are little different from the corresponding IPA documents. But in the IOA and in its armed groups, more attention was paid to uniting people on the basis of religious influence.
The main areas of action of the armed forces of the IOA were the northern provinces of the country: the northern regions of the provinces of Kabul , Panjshir Gorge , Badakhshan , Baghlan , Tahar , Kunduz , Samangan , Balkh , Jauzjan , Faryab , Badghis , Herat .
According to their ethnic composition, the majority of the IOA members were ethnic groups living in these areas - Tajiks , Uzbeks , Turkmens , and also Pashtuns . The social base was made up of representatives of the middle classes: petty officials, former military personnel, teachers, students, religious figures, and the peasantry. Compared with Hekmatyar, Rabbani was more educated, balanced of his actions, was more pragmatic and flexible, inclined to compromise with Islamic traditionalist circles and other opposition organizations.
The IOA paid more attention to the creation in the controlled areas of civil authorities - the emirates. Armed groups united in fronts, consisting of several detachments. Unlike Hekmatyar, who often visited the territory of Afghanistan and personally led the largest armed actions, B. Rabbani was almost constantly in Pakistan. He paid the main attention to the general political leadership, the organization of ideological influence and the extraction of financial resources and weapons.
Its front and field commanders in the field had relative independence in the matter of socio-political structure and warfare. A special place among them was occupied by Ahmad Shah Masoud , who acted in the north-eastern regions of the country with a support base in the Panjshir Valley  .
Burhanuddin Rabbani - the leader of the party, was born in Fayzabad. Tajik by nationality. He graduated from the theological lyceum and the theological faculty of Kabul University. Then, continued his education at Cairo University Al-Azhar, where he fell under the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood. After returning to Afghanistan, he was engaged in teaching and public activities, directing the main efforts to the struggle against "penetration into the country of communism." B. Rabbani and his organization maintained the closest ties with the Arab Muslim leaders of Egypt, Saudi Arabia and mainly received help from there. Unlike the IPA, the IOA widely attracted not only Sunnis, but also Shiites. Therefore, they also enjoyed the support of the Iranian authorities.
Between 1992 and 2001, Burhanuddin Rabbani (Dari برهان الدين رباني - Burhânuddîn Rabbânî) from 1940-2011 - President of Afghanistan. I didn’t really have presidential powers. After the capture of Kabul by the Taliban in 1996, it was recognized by the international community as the legitimate president of Afghanistan.
Ahmad Shah Masoud - ( September 1, 1953 - September 9, 2001 ) - field commander, Minister of Defense of Afghanistan. Also known under the nickname Panjshir lion . Masoud is a nickname ( lakab ), which in Arabic means “Happy,” which he received in 1975 , during the rebellion in the Panjshir Valley - the first armed demonstration of the Islamic opposition in Afghanistan  .
Ismail Khan was born in 1946 . An ethnic Tajik , a native of Shindand county of Herat province, a former military man, an officer in the Afghan army in military rank is a captain from among the commanders of one of the units of the 17th Infantry Division of the Republic of Afghanistan , with the advent of Soviet troops, he switched to the side of the Afghan Mujahideen . The third most influential, after Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Shah Masoud . Simultaneously with the financial assistance of the CIA in the framework of the Cyclone operation , where Burhanuddin Rabbani was one of the distributors of foreign financial assistance, Ismail Khan also had its own channels of financial and military support, being a distributor of funds from Shiite circles - the Alliance of Eight, the Shiite eight .
- ↑  Book "My Last War" (Afghanistan without Soviet troops), Army General M. Gareev
- ↑   Archived copy of October 5, 2006 on the Wayback Machine Archived copy (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment November 11, 2010. Archived June 1, 2007. [four]
- Afghan war (1979-1989)
- Afghan Mujahideen
- Ahmad Shah Masoud
- Ismail Khan
- Shiite Eight
- Peshawar Seven