Dmitri Fedorovich Trepov ( 2  December 1855 , St. Petersburg, Russia - 2  September 1906 , ibid.) - Major General (April 9, 1900 ), Major General Svita (April 6, 1903 ), son of St. Petersburg Mayor General Trepov .
|Dmitry Fedorovich Trepov|
|Predecessor||Konstantin Nikolaevich Rydzewski|
|Birth||2 (14) December 1855 |
|Death||September 2 (15) 1906 (50 years)|
1. Peter and Paul Cathedral , Peterhof , Russian Empire
|Father||Fedor Fedorovich Trepov|
At the end of the course in the Corps of Pages, Trepov served in the Life Guards Mounted Regiment ; in 1877 he took an active part in dealing with the Turks, being in the detachment of General Gurko , and in the battle of Telish was wounded in the leg.
Moscow Chief Police Officer
In 1896, he was appointed as the correcting post of the Moscow chief of police chief instead of being dismissed without the request of Colonel Vlasovsky, accused of a catastrophe on the Khodynka field in 1896 during coronation celebrations in Moscow; April 9, 1900 with the production of a major general approved in the post.
He applied rectilinear administrative-police measures to suppress the revolutionary movement in Moscow, being the closest aide to the Moscow Governor-General of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich ; in particular, he consistently pursued a political movement among students.
He was a protector and conductor of Zubatov policy among workers. Subsequently, in a conversation with an English publicist Stad, transmitted by Stad himself in the Review of Reviews, he said:
|The system that Zubatov conducted along with me and, in essence, on my initiative, was an attempt to raise the social position of the working class in Moscow. We reached our goal in three ways: 1) we encouraged workers to organize trade unions for self-defense and to defend their economic interests; 2) we gave a series of lectures on economic issues involving knowledgeable lecturers; 3) we organized a wide distribution of cheap and healthy literature, tried to encourage the initiative and promote mental development and encourage lean. The results were the best. Prior to the introduction of the Zubatov system, Moscow was bubbling with discontent; under my regime, the worker saw that the sympathies of the government were on his side and that he could count on our help against the oppression of the entrepreneur. Moscow used to be a breeding ground for discontent, now there is peace, prosperity and contentment.|
In fact, this system slowed down for some time the development of revolutionary aspirations in the working class in Moscow, but in the end it turned out to be beneficial for revolutionaries; it caused strong discontent of the big Moscow bourgeoisie.
Governor General of St. Petersburg
On January 1 (14), 1905, with the departure of Sergey Alexandrovich from his post as Moscow Governor-General, he was appointed to the disposal of the Commander-in-Chief of the troops operating against Japan , but did not manage to go to war.
On January 2, an attempt was made on the life of Trepov. Shot 19-year-old pupil trading school Poltoratsky. After the first shot, which was shot through with Trepov’s coat, Poltoratsky was captured by gendarmes and fired several more bullets during the fight, but to no avail  .
After the Events on January 9, 1905, by the highest order of January 11, 1905  , he was appointed St. Petersburg Governor-General (the post was established  for him under the conditions of the revolutionary unrest that began, according to Count S. Yu. Witte [4 ] , under the patronage of his cavalry colleague Barry Frederiks, Minister of the Court)  , with very broad powers; settled for the first time in one of the branches of the Winter Palace - by personal order of the emperor  . The highest command of January 13 of the same year  as the St. Petersburg Governor-General was also subordinated to the police and institutions in Tsarskoe Selo , Petergof , Gatchina and Pavlovsk under the authority of the Ministry of the Imperial Court. ("The actual dictator of Russia at the beginning of the 1905 revolution," - such an assessment of his then position was given by Professor G. M. Deich  .)
In addition to the direct duties of the governor-general, whose power extended to the entire St. Petersburg province , taking advantage of the location of Emperor Nicholas II and consisting (later) also a friend of the Minister of the Interior, he assumed many functions of the Minister of the Interior, pushing Bulygin into the background. One of his first steps was to open all institutions of higher education by February 15; however, he failed to achieve this.
Then he directed his vigilance to the press, which, under the former Minister of the Interior, Svyatopolk-Mirsky , spoke somewhat freer than before. Warnings, confiscations and other penalties followed. On February 5, the two most extreme St. Petersburg newspapers were banned: "Our Life" and "Son of the Fatherland" - both for three months, with a return after resumption under preliminary censorship. The editorial offices of newspapers, not subject to censorship, received from the head office for press affairs a circular after circular with the prohibition to touch one or another question, and the initiator of these circulars was almost always at that time Trepov. The censors received instructions directly from the governor-general.
When, in the first days of February 1905, meetings on the question of the future policy of the government began in Tsarskoye Selo, he was invited there along with the ministers, and together with Pobedonostsev was the main opponent of the idea of convening the Zemsky Sobor then held by S. S. Yermolov . They were credited with holding the manifesto on February 18, which, under the influence of other ministers, was followed on the same day by a completely different in spirit rescript addressed to A. G. Bulygin. Despite this, Trepov’s position was not at all shaken.
Comrade Interior Minister
In May 1905, he was appointed Comrade of the Minister of the Interior, Head of the Police, and Commander of a separate corps of gendarmes , leaving the post of St. Petersburg Governor General. After that, the entire government policy was directed largely by Trepov. In contradiction with the policy of repression, there is an admission to the Highest Audience of a deputation from the congress of the Zemstvo and city leaders, with Prince S. Trubetskoy at the head.
When the All-Russian strike began in October 1905, which threatened street unrest, Trepov ordered to advertise the announcement on the streets of St. Petersburg  :
|The population of the capital is alarmed by rumors of the impending mass riots.|
Measures to preserve the identity and property of the capital taken; therefore, I ask the population not to believe these rumors.
If, however, somewhere there were attempts to disrupt the riots, they would cease at the very beginning and, therefore, would not receive serious development. I ordered the troops and the police to make any such attempt to suppress immediately and in the strongest possible terms; when rendering resistance from the crowd to that, do not give idle volleys and spare no bullets.I consider it my duty to warn the population of the capital about this, so that every man in the street who joins the crowd making a mess knows what it risks; however, in order to avoid serious consequences, I invite the prudent population of the capital not to adjoin the gatherings aimed at disturbing order.
Although the phrase “to spare no bullets” was picked up by revolutionary propaganda and remained in history as an example of violent reaction  , the notice had an effect, and the shooting in St. Petersburg did not happen  . On October 26, 1905, Trepov was moved to the post of Palace Commandant; his value and in this post remained considerable.
According to the memoirs of A.V. Gerasimov , in 1905, in his political views, Trepov was close to S.U. Witte  :
|He repeatedly told me that, in his opinion, Witte is our largest state official. If he is now out of work, he will soon come up. Soon Trepov informed me that when reporting to the Sovereign, he expressed the opinion of Witte as the only person who could improve relations between the government and society. <...> The essence of Witte's thoughts was that it was necessary to reach an agreement with the intelligentsia and the commercial and industrial circles and to attract the best representatives of these layers to the side of the government for the joint struggle against rising anarchy.|
Trepov had high hopes for the publication of the Manifesto on October 17 . He reported to Gerasimov who had arrived at his report on the signing of the manifesto in the following words: “Sorry for making you wait. Just called Sergei Yulievich. Thank God, the manifesto is signed. Given freedom. Introduced popular representation. A new life begins. ”
At the beginning of 1906, he suddenly began to express an opinion on the need for concessions to society. When the State Duma gathered, and the star chamber began to seek its dissolution, Trepov spoke out against dissolution as a measure that could be extremely dangerous.
July 1, 1906, on music in the Peterhof Garden, Major General S.V. Kozlov was killed by mistake instead of Trepov in appearance; Vasiliev the murderer was executed.
On September 2, 1906, Trepov died unexpectedly from the degeneration of his heart. The rumors of suicide that had arisen were refuted by an autopsy.
He was buried in the chapel of the court of Peter and Paul in Peterhof  . In 1915, his wife Sofya Sergeevna was buried next to Trepov. In the late 1930s, the graves were opened by order of the authorities , the remains were removed, their fate is unknown. A saber was removed from Trepov’s coffin.
Trepov had three daughters - Sophia (Glebova), Tatiana (Gall) and Maria (Brunner). All three emigrated after the revolution.
Contemporaries' memories and reviews
The former head of the Moscow Security Department, Sergei Zubatov, in his correspondence with V. L. Burtsev recalled Trepov in the following way: “What struck me especially was the careful reading of proclamations, illegal brochures, etc., which I had not noticed before any of the commanding officers. My second discovery was that (he) gave them faith, demanded verification of the facts reported in them (they usually thought: "What can be good from Nazareth?") And in official reports of bailiffs on working misunderstandings justice, imposing often correct but sharp resolutions on paper in this, for example, kind of: “The masters are again to blame!” Afterwards, I became convinced that the objection to him: “This is not conscience, this is unfair”, “knocked him down like a bull , with legs, and he went for everything. Noticing this, I always reserved this argument, as compelling, on the most important cases. In a word, he was a marvelous soul, a man scrupulously observing his honor and conscience ”  .
General A. A. Mosolov , who was married to Sister Trepov, in his memoirs (early 1930s) says about him: “<...> Trepov, called up in the midst of popular unrest on January 11  , - pacified them, without spilling a single drop of blood, and this was performed with complete confusion at the top "  . About the widely known phrase from the order of Trepov to the troops of the garrison “Do not spare patrons!” Mosolov, who read the draft order the day before, writes that these words caused his bewilderment and question to Trepov: “Do you mind?” In response, Trepov said: “ Yes, in his. And this phrase is completely considered by me. <...> I can’t do otherwise, according to my conscience. The troops stopped being afraid, and they began to sour themselves. Tomorrow you will probably have to shoot. And so far I have not shed blood. The only way to prevent this misfortune lies in this phrase. <...> ". Mosolov remarks: “He was right, the crowd was afraid of the troops after this energetic order, and not a single shot was given that day. Trepov, of course, knew the psychology of the crowd and had the civil courage to act according to his convictions ”  .
Touching upon the question of Trepov’s political views during the period of turmoil, Mosolov writes: “The main idea of Trepov was that once the emperor gave certain freedoms and legalized them, any of his retreat from them would be a danger to the dynasty . At the same time, he explained to me that he was such an opponent of Witte ’s manifesto only because he had a premonition that the sovereign would not be able to fulfill everything he had been given in this manifesto. ” 
- Order of St. Stanislav 3rd degree (1878).
- Order of St. Anne of the 4th degree (1878).
- Order of St. Anne 3rd degree (1882).
- Order of St. Stanislav 2nd degree (1886).
- Order of St. Anne 2nd degree (1893).
- Order of St. Stanislav 1st degree (1893).
- Order of St. Vladimir of the 4th degree (1895).
- Order of St. Vladimir 3rd class (1898).
- Order of St. Anne 1st Class (1906).
- Wenzel image of the name of Emperor Alexander II (1900).
- The Persian Order of Leo and the Sun of the 3rd degree (1879).
- The Austrian Order of the Iron Crown 3rd Class (1891).
- Montenegrin Order of Prince Daniel I of the 3rd degree (1894).
- Officer's cross of the Saxon Order of Albrecht (1895).
- Officer's cross of the Order of the Legion of Honor (1896).
- Commander cross 2 class of Saxe-Coburg-Gothic Order of the House of Ernest (1896).
- Commander cross of the Bavarian Order "For Military Merit" (1897).
- Siamese Order of the White Elephant 2nd degree with a star (1899).
- Greater officer cross of the Order of the Romanian Crown (1899).
- Bulgarian Order "Saint Alexander" 2nd degree with a star (1899).
- Historical Revolutionary Almanac of the Publisher "Rosehip". 1907 / under total ed. V.L. Burtseva. - [St. Petersburg: Dogrose, 1907]
- " Government Gazette ." January 12, 1905, No. 8, p. 1.
- Namely highest decree of the Governing Senate . // “Government Gazette”, January 12, 1905, No. 8, p. 1.
- Count S. Yu. Witte . Memories. The reign of Nicholas I. M.-Pg., 1923, T. I, p. 282, 285–286.
- General A. Mosolov writes that Trepov’s candidacy was suggested to them by Fredericks on January 11 (Gen. A. Mosolov. At the emperor’s court . Riga, , p. 121.) - despite the reluctance to remain in St. Petersburg the day before (Ibid ., 119).
- Gene. A. Mosolov . At the court of the emperor . Riga, , p. 122.
- "Government Gazette." January 20, 1905, No. 15, p. 1.
- Jewish Heritage Society: Monograph Series - monograph 1 (Russian) Archived July 25, 2009.
- Trotsky L. D. Our first revolution. Part 1. Appendix 8. // L. Trotsky. Writings Volume 2, Part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1925
- Trotsky, L. D. The strike continues // L. Trotsky. Writings Volume 2, Part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1925
- Mosolov A. A. At the court of the last emperor. - M .: Direct Media, 2014. - p. 45
- A. V. Gerasimov. On the blade with terrorists. Chapter 6
- Trepov, Dmitry Fedorovich // Petersburg Necropolis / Comp. V.I. Saitov . - SPb. : M. M. Stasiulevich Printing House , 1913. - Vol. 4 (C —). - p. 286.
- B.P. Kozmin. S.V. Zubatov and his correspondents. - M.-L .: State Publishing House, 1928. - 144 p.
- This refers to January 1905.
- Gene. A. Mosolov. At the court of the emperor . Riga, , p. 123.
- Ibid., 124-125 (spelling and punctuation, by source).
- Ibid., 128.
- Trepov, Dmitry Fedorovich // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : 86 tons (82 tons and 4 extra). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Encyclopedia of the Secret Services of Russia / Compiled by A.I. Kolpakidi. - M .: AST, Astrel, Transitbook, 2004. - p. 173. - 800 p. - ISBN 5-17018975-3 .
- Trepov, Dmitry Fedorovich, state. activities, gen.-m. // Moscow Encyclopedia. / Ch. ed. S. O. Schmidt . - M. , 2007—2014. - T. Tom I. Faces of Moscow : [in 6 books.].
- Dmitry Fedorovich Trepov