R-39UTTH (Bark) - Soviet / Russian development of a solid-fuel ballistic missile designed for deployment on submarines (SLBM) as part of the D-19UTTH complex. It was created in the 1980s in response to the development of Trident-2 missiles  .
- 1 Development and testing
- 2 Performance characteristics
- 3 See also
- 4 notes
- 5 Links
Development and testing
Development has been conducted since 1986 at the Design Bureau named after Makeeva - a traditional developer of SLBMs. It was assumed that the missile could carry 10 warheads in nuclear equipment of the middle class with a capacity of 200 kT and have a flight range of more than 10,000 kilometers. It was planned to equip the Bark with SSBNs of the 955th Northwind project.
The design of the rocket provided for a special system of passage through the ice, providing launch from under the ice shell of the northern latitudes. Also, "Bark" could be used both on the optimal trajectory and on the floor ; in the first case, a rocket flies from the Barents Sea to Kamchatka in 30 minutes, and in the second - in 17 minutes   .
In May 1987, the schedule for the conversion of Project 941 submarines with the D-19UTTX missile system at the Sevmash Enterprise was approved  :
- order 711 , October 1988 - 1994,
- order 712 , 1992-1997,
- Order 713 , 1996-1999,
- Orders 724 , 725 , 727 - production and delivery after 2000.
By 1991, the surface testing of the rocket was completed, but the collapse of the USSR forced the start of additional work to replace the elements of the rocket, the production of which was abroad Russia. In particular, it was necessary to replace the type of RDTT fuel with TTF-56/3 (using aluminum hydride ) with OPAL-MS IIM. Ground testing of the modified rocket ended in 1996  .
In 1998, after the third unsuccessful launch (from the Nenoksky test site  ), the Ministry of Defense decided to stop work on the 73% -finished complex. This was caused not only by unsuccessful launches, but also by unsatisfactory funding: according to the general designer, about 8 more launches from submarines were required to fully develop the complex, but due to the high complexity, with the existing level of funding, the construction of one rocket took about three years [ 2] , which dragged on the process of testing the launch and testing of the complex to unacceptably long periods.
The Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering , the developer of the “land” ICBM Topol-M , was instructed to develop an alternative, less expensive and smaller overall solid-fuel SLBM, called the Bulava .
- Type of MS: RGCH IN 
- Number of warheads: 10 each with a power of 200 kT 
- Length: 16.1 m
- Case diameter max .: 2.42 m
- Starting weight, kg: 81,000 
- The thrown weight, kg: 3 050 
- Maximum range, km: about 9,000 
- R-31 - the first Soviet solid-fuel rocket sea-based.
- How naval strategic nuclear forces were reduced , proatom.ru, 06/22/2009
- “Blue” rises above the sea . Dmitry Litovkin, Nezavisimaya Gazeta . nvo.ru (05/12/2000). Date of treatment October 6, 2007.
- Archived copy (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment August 25, 2007. Archived September 27, 2007. new-factoria.ru, “R-39 ballistic missile (RSM-52)”
- Sea-based solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile RSM-52V "BARK" (SS-N-20) (inaccessible link) . Date of treatment January 3, 2014. Archived January 3, 2014.
- Thunder struck - with a "Mace" bummer . Oleg Khimanych, "Northern Week" . vdvsn.ru (02.27.2008). Date of treatment March 22, 2008.
- From opposition to combination, nvo.ng.ru, 2007-11-16
- P-39UTTH / 3M91 Bark - SS-NX-28 . MilitaryRussial.Ru. Date of appeal September 23, 2017.
- Interview with the General Designer of Design Bureau named after Makeeva
- Russian Newspaper on the situation with Bark and Bulava
- about the mace test // Lenta.ru
- "Intrigue, lobbying and unhealthy competition" // Independent Military Review
- [ http://makeyev.msk.ru/pub/msys/2005/Start_in_the_past.html "Start in the past or in the future?" // " Red Star ", 5 Feb 2005
- “SNF: the end of history?” Full version of the article “Start into the past or into the future?”