The Holy Spirit ( Hebrew רוח הקודש [ 1] , Greek πνεῦμα ἅγιον  ) - in Christianity the third hypostasis of the one God - the Holy Trinity .
The word for "Holy Spirit" has a grammatical masculine gender in Russian, in Latin ( Spiritus Sanctus ). In Hebrew ( רוח הקדש ), and in other Semitic languages ( Ruah ) - feminine, while in Greek (Agio Pnevma - Άγιο Πνεύμα ) - average.
- 1 Judaism
- 2 Christianity
- 2.1 Development of the Holy Spirit
- 2.2 The actions of the Holy Spirit
- 2.2.1 The Baptism of the Holy Spirit
- 2.2.2 Gifts of the Holy Spirit
- 2.2.3 The Fruits of the Holy Spirit
- 2.3 Visible Appearances of the Holy Spirit
- 2.4 Theology of the Holy Spirit
- 2.5 Hula on the Holy Spirit
- 3 See also
- 4 notes
- 5 Literature
- 6 References
The expression “Holy Spirit” appears infrequently in the Tanakh , for example, once in Ps. 50:13 , twice in Isa. 63: 10-11 . Moreover, the word "Spirit" in the meaning of "Spirit of God" is used many times, the first time in Genesis. 1: 2 . In Judaism, God is one, the idea of the duality or trinity of God for the Jews is unacceptable. The term Ruah ha-Kodesh (Holy Spirit) is often found in Talmudic literature. In some cases, this refers to prophetic inspiration, while in others it is used to denote the power of God. Ezekiel calls the prophetic vision “Ruach Elohim” or “Ruach Adonai”. For Jews, the “holy spirit” has a certain degree of personification, but it remains “a quality belonging to God, one of its attributes”, whereas in Christianity the Holy Spirit is One of the Persons of the Triune God.  .
Judaism refers to the Spirit of God (Ruah ha-Kodesh), Jehovah's Holy Spirit ( Yahweh ), abound, but he rejects any idea that the Holy Spirit is the eternal God, as part of a triune deity. The term ruach ha-kodesh ( Hebrew רוח הקודש , “the Holy Spirit” - transliteration of ruach ha-kodesh) is given once in Psalm 51:11, and also twice in the Book of Isaiah . These are three bible verses that use the expression “Ruah ha-Kodesh.” Moreover, the noun ruach ( Hebrew רוח ), often used in relation to the Spirit of Almighty God, and also refers to the concept of spirit, literally means “breath” or “wind”. The noun ruach, just like the Russian word “breath”, means either wind or an invisible driving force  .
Thus, the Holy Spirit has always been perceived and is still perceived by Judaism as an acting force, the breath of Jehovah God himself (Yahweh), with which He does and creates everything. Subsequently, the word "spirit" ( Hebrew רוח ) began to denote an independent supermundane being. This designation is found in some apocryphal writings, as well as in the Talmud and Midrash. This concept was especially developed in Christianity. Here it is no longer a question of the special quality of the Lord, not of enlightenment emanating from Him, but of an objectively existing, living and personal principle. The Holy Spirit was probably never exposed to such an incarnation among the Jews; but even the Jews sometimes saw in him an emanation of divine power acting independently  .
The importance of the Holy Spirit in the life of every believer is recognized by most traditional Christian denominations. The Holy Spirit is the face of the Trinity through which the triune God acts in man and the church. If the concept of God the Father was paramount in the Old Testament , the ministry of the Son was during the period described in the Gospels , then at present in the Christian church the Gifts of the Holy Spirit are more visible  .
The Development of the Holy Spirit
The seventh chapter of Didah contains the formula of baptism "in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit"  .
At the end of the 1st century, Clement of Rome united the three Persons of the Trinity in an oath: “God lives and the Lord Jesus Christ lives and the Holy Spirit, the faith and hope of the elect”  . He asked a rhetorical question: “Do we not have one God and one Christ? Is not the Spirit of grace alone poured out on us? ”  . Also, Clement mentions the Spirit as the author and mastermind of scripture . Origen claimed that the Holy Spirit “possesses such dignity and authority” and was involved in the Father and the Son  . Hippolytus of Rome speaks of worship of the Holy Spirit  . Athanasius the Great declared the complete divinity of the Holy Spirit and His coessence with the Father and the Son.
At the same time, opposing views on the nature of the Holy Spirit appeared in the church. Thus, the Bishop of Macedonia of Constantinople in the 4th century expressed the opinion that the Holy Spirit is “a servant and minister at the same level as the angels”  and is subordinate to God the Father and the Son . The Kizik bishop Eunomius spoke of the origin of the Spirit “as a result of the command of the Father and the action of the Son”  . The teachings of the Macedonians and Eunomians about the Holy Spirit were considered at the Council of Constantinople in 381, recognized as heretical and anathematized .
In the Middle Ages, interest in the Holy Spirit was fueled by debates about the filioque . In the end, different views on the nature of the descent of the Holy Spirit became one of the reasons for the Great schism .
During the reformation, Jean Calvin stated that the Holy Spirit brings the meaning of Holy Scripture to the hearts and minds of believers. John Wesley taught about the participation of the Holy Spirit in the "sanctification" of a believer. The continuation of Wesley's views was the movement of holiness in the XIX century. In the 20th century, the doctrine of the baptism with the Holy Spirit became one of the most important tenets of Pentecostals .
Actions of the Holy Spirit
From the point of view of Orthodox Christianity (recognizing the first creeds of Christianity, in particular the Nicene Tsaregradsky Creed ), the Holy Spirit, together with the Father and the Son, is the Creator of the invisible and visible worlds -
|In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. The earth was formless and empty, and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.|
( Genesis 1: 1-2 )
Even King David prayed in the Old Testament to send him the Holy Spirit:
|Create a pure heart in me, God, and renew the right spirit within me. Thou shalt not reject me from Thy face, and Thy Holy Spirit, do not take me away from me. Return to me the joy of Your salvation and confirm me with your sovereign Spirit.|
( Psalm 50: 12-14 )
Christians believe that the Holy Spirit throughout history descended on individuals with the goal of giving them supernatural powers: prophets , priests, righteous Jewish kings , apostles , Christian martyrs, and all saints.
Christians believe that through the action of the Holy Spirit God the Son is embodied -
|The Holy Spirit will find upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore, the Holy One born will be called the Son of God.|
( Luke 1:35 )
The Gospel of John tells us that Jesus Christ said that the Holy Spirit would later convict the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment ( John 16: 7-11 ).
Jesus Christ also called the Holy Spirit the Comforter:
|When the Comforter comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of Truth, which comes from the Father, He will testify of Me.|
( John 15:26 )
Obviously, the function of the Holy Spirit is revealed here in that He will testify of Jesus Christ.
The Holy Spirit is the offering of the Holy Gifts: bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ -
|Having transposed your Holy Spirit. Amen. Amen. Amen.|
Epicleza in the liturgy of the Byzantine rite
Such religious concepts as the baptism of the Holy Spirit , the fruit of the Holy Spirit , the gifts of the Holy Spirit are associated with the actions of the Holy Spirit .
In historical churches , the baptism of the Holy Spirit refers to anointing , which is carried out by a priest: in Orthodoxy at the same time with baptism of water, and in Catholicism at an older age. Pentecostals and some representatives of other Christian faiths believe that the baptism with the Holy Spirit is available to all believers (regardless of the tradition of the Church) after Pentecost , and is not only a rite, but also a personal spiritual experience, in some cases accompanied by various emotions.
|I baptized you with water, and He ( Jesus ) will baptize you with the Holy Spirit|
( Mark 1: 8 )
|The Apostles who were in Jerusalem, having heard that the Samaritans had accepted the word of God, sent Peter and John to them, who, having come, prayed for them to receive the Holy Spirit. For He has not yet descended upon any of them, but they were only baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then laid their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit.|
( Acts 8: 14-17 )
Gifts of the Holy Spirit
The gifts of the Holy Spirit are supernatural manifestations of the Holy Spirit in believers. Christians believe that spiritual gifts are given to believers (or given during the days of the apostles' life) to fulfill certain divine ordinances recorded in the Bible , such as:
- conversion of unbelievers ( 1 Cor. 14: 24-25 )
- building up the church of Christ ( Eph. 4:11 )
- edification of the local community and its members ( 1 Cor. 14:12 , 1 Cor. 14: 3 )
- personal edification of the believer ( 1 Cor. 14: 4 )
The theme of the gifts of the Holy Ghost is examined in detail by the apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians, chapters 12-14. The opening words are considered fundamental:
|But everyone is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the benefit. The Spirit is given the word of wisdom to one, the word of knowledge to another, by the same Spirit; another faith, the same Spirit; to others the gifts of healing, by the same Spirit; another miracles, another prophecy, another discernment of spirits, another different languages, another interpretation of languages. All the same, the same Spirit produces it, dividing each one individually as he pleases.|
( 1 Cor. 12: 7-11 )
Based on this text, it is customary to highlight [by whom? ] 9 gifts of the Holy Spirit:
- 1 - the word of wisdom
- 2 - the word of knowledge
- 3 - faith
- 4 - gifts of healing
- 5 - wonderworking
- 6 - prophecy
- 7 - discernment of spirits
- 8 - different languages
- 9 - interpretation of languages
In patristics , it is noted that the key to understanding these gifts is the word “manifestation”  . The Holy Spirit dwelling within the believer is invisible. But, thanks to the action of gifts, the Spirit of God reveals Himself to the human senses. In other words, each of these gifts is a supernatural manifestation of the Holy Spirit dwelling in the believer and acting through him. And since these gifts are not a believer, but a person of the Holy Spirit, they are all supernatural in nature. Saint Theophan the Recluse believes that "the words" manifestation of the Spirit "mean the obvious action of the Spirit, His discovery, noticeable to all." 
In Pentecostalism and the charismatic movement , where spiritual gifts are given increased attention, the manifestations of the Holy Spirit are generally classified into three different groups:
- Gifts of speech - gifts acting through the organs of human speech (prophecy, different languages, interpretation of languages)
- Gifts of revelation - gifts that provide supernatural revelations (word of wisdom, word of knowledge, discernment of spirits)
- Gifts of power - gifts that demonstrate the power of God in physical reality (faith, gifts of healing, miracles) 
The Fruits of the Holy Spirit
The fruits of the Holy Spirit are virtues that require, in addition to the efforts of man himself, God's assistance. According to Theophylact of Bulgaria , “a seed is given from us, that is, arbitrariness, but in order to become a fruit to it, it depends on God”  . They are called by the Apostle Paul in the 5th chapter of Galatians:
|The fruit of the Spirit: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, mercy, faith, meekness, temperance.|
( Gal. 5: 22-23 )
Visible Appearances of the Holy Spirit
The New Testament describes the following visible manifestations of the Holy Spirit:
- In the form of a dove ( Luke 3:22 , Matt. 3:16 , Mark 1:10 , John 1:32 ). This episode, describing the Baptism of the Lord, is the only possible plot in Christian iconography, which is permissible - as an image of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove descending from Heaven. That is, all other images of the dove, not related to the plot of the Baptism of the Lord, do not represent the Spirit, but only a dove.
- In the form of tongues of fire ( Acts 2: 3 ).
- In the form of other languages, when people in whom the Holy Spirit descended began to speak in different languages that these people did not know before ( Acts 2: 3-10 ).
Theology of the Holy Spirit
- In the Gospels is called the cleansing power ( Matthew 3:11 ) and the successor of Jesus Christ ( John 16:13 ).
- In Orthodoxy , Catholicism and most Protestant denominations, the Holy Spirit is spoken of as an independent personality of the Divine, coessential to God the Father and God the Son , which was recorded at the Second Ecumenical Council
- In medieval mysticism, the doctrine of the Holy Spirit developed as a symbol of the new post-Christian era - the Era of the Holy Spirit ( Joachim of Flore ).
- In some sects, the idea of the dogmatic obscurity of the Holy Spirit is exploited, and the doctrine of new incarnations of the Holy Spirit ( Mary Devi Christos , Alice Lakvena , Nirmala Shivastava ) similar to Jesus Christ is developed .
Hula on the Holy Spirit
According to the Gospel, the sin of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is not forgiven:
22 Then they brought unto him a demoniac blind and dumb; and healed him, so that the blind and dumb began to speak and see.
23 And all the people marveled and said: Is not this Christ, the son of David?
24 And the Pharisees, hearing these things, said: He cast out demons only by the power of Beelzebub , the prince of demons.
31 Therefore I say unto you, all sin and blasphemy will be forgiven to men, but a blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven to men;
32 if anyone speaks a word on the Son of man, he will be forgiven him; if anyone speaks of the Holy Spirit, he will not be forgiven either in this century or in the future.
( Matthew 12: 22-32 )
Jesus said this after accusing the Pharisees of expelling demons by the power of the prince of demons. According to the interpretation of Isidore Pelusiotsky and Basil the Great blasphemy against the Holy Spirit - this is attribution of the action of the Spirit of God to the prince of demons. John Chrysostom believed that blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is a man's rejection of the obvious truth.
- Spiritual gifts
- The fruit of the Holy Spirit
- Whit Monday
- Order of the Holy Spirit
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