Verkhne-Udinsky district ( Verkhne-Udinsky district ) is an administrative-territorial unit in the Irkutsk province (until 1851) and the Trans-Baikal region of the Russian Empire . The administrative center is Verkhneudinsk .
|A country||Russian empire|
|County town||Ulan-Ude | Verkhneudinsk|
|History and Geography|
|Date of formation||1851 (in the Transbaikal region)|
|Area||94 575 miles ² km²|
|Population||167 876  ( 1897 ) people|
In 1783 the Udinsky district (later Verkhneudinsky district ) of the Irkutsk province was formed .
With the formation in 1851 of the Transbaikal region, the Verkhneudinsky and Nerchinsky districts of Transbaikalia became part of it.
In 1870, the Barguzinsky and Selenginsky districts were allocated from the Verkhneudinsky okrug, in Troitskosavsky okrug in 1872.
In 1901, the Verkhneudinsky district was transformed into the Verkhneudinsky district.
In 1923, Verkhneudinsky district became part of the newly formed Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic .
In October 1927, Verkhneudinsky district was renamed Verkhneudinsky district.
On October 1, 1933, by the Decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR, the Verkhneudinsky District was renamed the Tarbagatai District .
The Verkhneudinsky district in the west was bounded by the Selenga River , in the north by the Ulan-Burgas ridge , which runs along the right bank of the Uda River , in the east by the ridges running from the top of the Uda to the Sohondo mountain junction; from this node to the west, the district was in contact with the borders of the Chinese Empire .
- Material from the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedia
The surface of the okrug is mountainous and represents a general slope to the west, along which the three most significant rivers in the okrug are poured into the Selenga: Uda , Khilok and Chikoi , so that the okrug is naturally divided into three valleys; the Uda valley is the most northern, Hilka is the middle, Chikoya is the southern; the first two are part of the entire district, Chikoiskaya only its upper half (the lower belongs to the Troitskosavsky district).
The high ranges surrounding the district from the north and east make it difficult to communicate with the lands of the districts of Selenginsky and Barguzinsky adjacent to it in the north and Chita and Nerchinsky in the east. The border of the district is open only in the west and partly in the south, where it adjoins the Chinese empire ; in the east, the most convenient point for communication with the eastern half of the region is at the tops of the river. Uda here the main (Moscow) highway passes, here it is also planned to lay a rail track in the future. From Verkhneudinsk , lying at the mouth of the Uda in the northwestern corner of the okrug, the tract goes up the river. Ude and Art. Verkhneudinskaya reaches the beginning of the pass through the Apple-tree range. From here to Art. Domno-Klyuchevskoy for 90 miles the road crosses the ridge; the pass looks like a treeless steppe not covered by snow in winter with mountain lakes scattered along it, for example, Yervinsky and others. The highest point of the pass is located at the village. Shakshinskaya and does not rise above 3400 feet of absolute height; that is, only 1,810 feet above Verkhneudinsk, the lowest place in the county (1,590 feet). Through the mountain spur, passing along the right bank of the Uda, only impassable paths lead to its northern side, and a more convenient passage exists only at the tops of the river. The Italians.
A little more accessible is that part of the Apple-tree ridge, in which the peaks of Khilka branch, and even less we cross the watershed between Chikoi and Ingoda; here only in winter the path is established along which carts with bread pass from the Chikoy valley to the eastern part of the region. Between the valleys of Uda, Khilka, Chikoya and others there are secondary ridges bearing private names: Khukhaita between Uda and its left tributary Khudun, Tsagan-Khuntey, Tsagan-Belchir, Tsagan-da and Zagan mountains between Uda and Khilk, Malkhan Range between Khilk and Chikoy. These intermediate ridges in the west reach the shores of the Selenga and form riverine cliffs. The highest point in the county is in the southeast corner of it: Chokondo (Sohondo), 8,040 feet in absolute height.
The Uda Valley, the largest of the three, is less comfortable than others; it represents a sandy steppe, snowless in winter, covered with sparse steppe vegetation in summer; the ridge passing along the right bank rises with a steep wall cut by tight gorges in which mountain streams flow, Buryat-like hormones that do not reach Uda; the peaks of the ridge are covered with taiga, the lower horizons are pine forest; the bottom of the gorges is cramped, swampy and overgrown with forest of spruce and larch, which runs out of the mountains to the Udinsk valley; these swampy coniferous cogras crossing the valley are called in the Buryat Sibirs. In the Khilka Valley, steppe areas located in mountain decays alternate with wooded-mountainous areas, and here the conditions for settling are more favorable.
Between Uda and Khilk lies a short, independent river valley that does not start on a watershed ridge. Tugnuy, characterized by the most pronounced steppe features, abundant in salt marshes and halophytes .
The Chikoya Valley is mountainous throughout its length, runs between cramped wooded mountains and abounds with scenic spots, from a cat. the most beautiful are the surroundings of the village of Gremyachy. Chikoya Valley is known as the breadbasket of Transbaikalia. Forests are scattered throughout the county; the densest are on the ridges forming the northern and eastern outskirts of the district; but the mountains inside the district are covered with copses of pine and larch; bare rocks are more common near Selenga. In the district there are mineral Emarovskie keys, in the upper reaches of Chikoy.
By 1889, there were 142,159 people in the district, with the exception of the population of the city of Verkhneudinsk, comprising 20 volosts , 1 separate rural society, and 1 Buryat steppe Duma ( Khorinskaya ).
The Russians were concentrated mainly in the lower reaches of Hilk and Chikoy; a significant part of it is Semey (Old Believers, evicted under Catherine II from the Chernigov province), living in large villages.
The Buryats occupied the right bank of the Uda from Verkhneudinsk to the upper reaches of the river and the valley of its tributaries, Kurba, Ona and Khudun, as well as the upper valleys of Hilka (with the Tugnuya valley) and Chikoy. Most Buryats belonged to the large Hori tribe, which is divided into 11 genera. The southern part of the okrug included the Selenga Buryats (mainly of the genus Tsongol ).
Volosts of the Verkhneudinsky district in 1891 (from the Memorial Book of the Transbaikal Region):
KOROTKOVSKAYA Settlements: Shimbilikskoye, Zakharovskoye, Osinovskoye, Fominichesky, Durnovskoye, Korotkovskoye, Korotkovskoy Ts., Bolshakovskoye, Borokhoevskoy Ts.
KRASNOYARSK . Settlements: Maloarkhangelskoe, Krasnoyarsk, Vyeyzzhinsky, Arkhangelsk Ts., Shebartuevskoe.
BAYKHOROVSKAYA . Settlements: Bayhorovskoy Ts., Gremyachinskoe, Mostovochnoye, Etykeiskoye, Shinoks. And Ustmenzin., Kotoyskoye, Morgituisky, Verkhne-Shergalzhinsky, Middle-Shergalzhinsky.
NIZHNARYARYSKAYA . Settlements: Albituyskoe, Nizhnenarymskoye, Nizhnenarymskoye (Sivachi) Ts., Verkhnenarymskoye, Dolozhinsky, Gutayskoye, Khilkotoyskoye.
URLUK . Settlements: Zhindokonsky, Zhindinsky Ts., Goldanovsky, Chitkansky, Urluksky, Beginning. uch., C. mzh. from. f. Bainbulyk.
TAMIR . Settlements: Kudarinsky Ts., Uladuyskoye, Oshunskoye, Zharnikovskoye, Dunguyskoye, Khamnagadayskoye, Kiretskoye , Shazagadayskoye, Urgurkuyskoye , Tamirskoy Nach. uch., Ts., Ukir-Shenuy separate rural society. Settlements: Ukyrsky, Shonuysky, Menzinsky Ts.
Malokunaleyskaya . Settlements: Malokunaleiskoe (Khilokskoye) Ts. Mzh. from. f. Krasnoyarsk, Buiskoe, Uskolugskoe Ts.
MALETINSKAYA . Peshchansk. and Starozardalinsky rural societies, Novozardalinsky rural society. Novo-Nikolskoe, rural society. Settlement: Novokhotskoe Ts., Maletinsky rural society. Settlements: Maletynsky, Sokhotsky, Alentuy rural society. Kataevsky rural society. Settlements: Kataevskoe, Kandabaevskoe. Orsuchnoe rural society. Settlements: Orsuchne, Kokuy, Katangarsky, Kulevsky rural society. Settlements: Kulevskoe, Tarbagatai Ts.
BEACHUR . Novobichursky village, Priest., Ts., Edinov. C.
ELANIAN . Starobichursky rural society of Ts., Sukhorutsky rural society, Elansky rural society of Ts., Mangirtuyevsky rural society. Settlements: Upper Mangirtuy, Lower Mangirtuy. Tonkin Rural Society, Bayandaevo Rural Society.
OKIN KLYUCHEVSKAYA . Settlements: Okino-Klyuchevskoy Vol. Ave, Bilyutoyskoye .
NIKOLSKY . Settlements: Kharauz, St. Nicholas. Ave., Honkholoyskoye.
MUKHORSHIBIR . Settlements: Kharashibir Ts., Vol. Ave., Mukhorshibir, Ts., Staro-Zaganskoe, Novo-Zaganskoye, Sheraldai.
KLYUCHEVSKAYA . Settlements: Subscapular C., Vol. Ave., Kharitonovskoe, Barykinskoe, Kliuchevskoy Ts., Kandagatai.
TARBAGATAY . Settlements: Tarbagatai Prist., Early Uch., Ts., Vol. Ave, Edinov. Ts., Verkhne-Zhirimsky, Lower Zhirimsky, Burnashevsky, Desyatnikovsky, Barsky, Nesterevsky, Sayantuevsky. KUNALEY . Settlements: Kunaleiskoe Ts., Vol. Etc.
KUITUN . Settlements: Kuitun Ts., Vol. Ave, Nadeinskoe.
BRYANSKAYA . Settlements: Novo-Bryansk, Staro-Bryansk, Taletskoe.
KULSKAYA . Settlements: Domno-Eravinsky, Ukyrsky, Telegr. Art., C., Vol. Ave., Pogromninskoe, Poperechinskoe, Bulagansk, Onino-Oborsk, Kul, Prist. Mail - tel. Sep., beg. uch., C., m. from. f. Sannomyskoe, Tarbagatai, Verkhne-Taletskoe, Mukhortalinskoe, Tyngiboldotskoe ?, Staro-Kurbinskoe, Novo-Kurbinskoe, Ts., Unigiteyskoe, Khosurtayevskoe, Beklemishevskoe, Shakshinskoe, Domno-Klyuchevskoe.
PETROVSKY - FACTORY . Uch. C. Vol. Ave, sick. Mountains B. MF from. vr. by.
KHORIN STEPPE DUMA .
Abbreviations: Beginning student - Elementary school Vol. Etc. - volost board of Ts. - church mzh. from. f. - place of residence of the rural paramedic
In 1913 there were 22 volosts in the county  :
In 1822, on the basis of the Statute "Institutions on the Administration of Siberian Provinces", the Verkhneudinsky District Board was established. The board was in charge of all administrative and economic matters in Verkhneudinsk and Verkhneudinsky okrug.
The board was abolished in 1917  .
Agriculture and horticulture are better developed among Russians according to Khilk and Chikoy, especially among families ; Buryats do sowing bread, but they do not have gardening, and they apply irrigation and fertilizer mainly to hay meadows. Bread from the district is being sold to the eastern half of the region and to Amur .
Horse breeding is widespread and, on snowless steppes, sheep breeding of the Mongolian breed, with small tail fat. Horses and cows are shallow, cows are poorly milked. Wool is sent to Irkutsk ; attempts were made to send her to London via the Chinese port of Tien-jing.
On the wooded outskirts of the district, especially in the peaks of Chikoy, the inhabitants are engaged in hunting, hitting squirrels (up to 150,000 a year), bears , goats and red deer. In the peaks of Chikoya, a special, unimportant (Chikoysky) sable variety is obtained; red deer horns, the so-called antlers, come to China through Kyakhta ; in the villages along the Chikoy peasants hold the deer in the fences, in a semi-domesticated state, in order to remove horns from them annually.
Handicrafts and crafts in the district are not developed. Part of the residents of Bichur and Tarbagatai volosts goes to earn money for the mines of the Nerchinsky district and the Amur region.
The most important of the plants are: 2 distilleries, a glass mill , a steam grind mill, and a state-owned ironworks Petrovsky Plant (on the Balyaga River, the right tributary of the Khilka River).
There are undeveloped ores in the district: iron luster along the Bryani river, iron ocher by pp. Kosurtu and Mykyrtu, magnetic iron ore 25 versts from the Kurbinskaya station, copper ores near the Kulskaya station and lead ores along the Khudunu river.
Gold placers at the peaks of Chikoya and Khilka are developed only by prospectors and predators; mined gold, in an amount of about 50 pounds, is entirely smuggled into China.
There were 13 schools in the district in 1891, 458 students. Buryat children who studied at Russian schools were 38 in 1889. School business is developing most slowly among the family.
- “Proceedings of the East Siberian Division of I.R. of the Geographical Society” (1890, book 2, p. 29 and 35.) - On Semey.
Fairs of Verkhneudinsky County
- First General Census of the Population of the Russian Empire in 1897 . Archived March 3, 2012.
- Volostnaya, stanichnaya, rural, communal governments and administrations, as well as police camps throughout Russia with the designation of their location . - Kyiv: Publishing House of the L.A. Fish, 1913.
- Guide to the pre-revolutionary funds of the NARB \\ National Archives of the Republic of Buryatia. 1998
- Verkhneudinsky District // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.