Romanesque style (from Latin romanus - Roman) - the artistic style that prevailed in Western Europe (and also affected some countries of Eastern Europe ) in the XI-XII centuries (in some places - and in the XIII century), one of the most important stages in the development of medieval European art. Most fully expressed in architecture .
|Breakup date||XII - XIII centuries|
The main role in the Romanesque style was assigned to the harsh fortress architecture: monastery complexes, temples, castles. The main buildings during this period are the temple-fortress and castle-fortress, located on the elevated places that dominate the area.
The term "Romanesque style"
The term “Romanesque style” was introduced at the beginning of the 19th century by Arsisse de Comon , who established the connection of architecture of the 11th – 12th centuries with ancient Roman architecture (in particular, the use of semicircular arches , arches ). In general, the term is conditional and reflects only one, not the main, side of art. However, it came into general use. The main form of Romanesque art is architecture, mainly church (stone church, monastery complexes).
Romanesque art is the name of a period in the history of European art from about the year 1000 until the emergence of Gothic art in the 13th century; depending on the region, the Romanesque period in art could come or end sooner or later. The previous period is sometimes referred to as pre-Roman .
The term “Romanesque art” was introduced in the 19th century by art historians, primarily for Romanesque architecture, which not only preserved many of the main features of the Roman architectural style - round arches , as well as barrel-shaped arches, apse and acanthus , leaf ornaments, but also created many new and very different details. In southern France, Spain, and Italy, there was an architectural continuity from late antiquity , but the Romanesque style was the first style to spread throughout Catholic Europe, from Denmark to Sicily . Romanesque art was also heavily influenced by Byzantine art , especially in painting, as well as under the influence of “non-classical” decoration of “island art” from the British Isles ; The combination of these two elements created a new and consistent style.
Romanesque buildings are characterized by a combination of a clear architectural silhouette and laconicism of the exterior decoration - the building harmoniously blended with the surrounding nature, and therefore looked especially solid and solid. This was facilitated by massive walls with narrow window openings and stepwise recessed portals . Such walls carried a defensive purpose.
The main buildings during this period are the temple-fortress and castle-fortress. The main element of the composition of the monastery or castle is the tower - the dungeon . Around it were the rest of the buildings, made up of simple geometric shapes - cubes, prisms, cylinders.
Features of the architecture of the Romanesque Cathedral:
- The plan is based on the early Christian basilica , i.e. the longitudinal organization of space
- The enlargement of the choir or the eastern altar of the temple
- Temple height increase
- Replacement in the largest cathedrals of the coffered (cassette) ceiling with stone arches. The arches were of several types: box-shaped, cross-shaped, often cylindrical, flat along beams (typical of Italian Romanesque architecture).
- Heavy arches required powerful walls and columns.
- The main motive of the interior is the semicircular arches.
The rational simplicity of the structure, composed of individual square cells - grass.
The most famous architectural monuments
Kamenets Tower , Republic of Belarus
Laach Abbey , Germany
Limburg Cathedral , Germany
Church of st. Jacob in Regensburg , Germany
Priory of Serrabona , France
Church of Notre Dame la Grand , France
Leaning Tower of Pisa , Italy
Church of the Virgin , Denmark
Winchester Cathedral , England
Old Cathedral of Coimbra
Republic of Belarus
- Kamenetsk tower
United Kingdom 
- Malmesbury Abbey
- Durham Cathedral
- Okemsky castle
- Saint Albany Cathedral
- Peterborough Cathedral
- Ili Cathedral
- Winchester Cathedral
- Laah Abbey
- Kaiser Cathedrals in Speyer , Worms and Mainz
- Limburg Cathedral
- Church of st. Jacob in Regensburg
- Church of the Virgin in Kalundborg
- Romanesque churches in Val de Boy
- Pisa Cathedral and partly the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa
- Sforza Castle
- Church of Notre Dame la Grand in Poitiers
- Priory Serrabona
- Braga Cathedral
- Xieu Cathedral in Porto
- Old Town Hall Bragances
- Old Cathedral of Coimbra
- Lisbon Cathedral
Romanesque sculpture entered its heyday since 1100, submitting, like Romanesque painting, to architectural motifs. It was mainly used in the exterior decoration of cathedrals. Reliefs were most often located on the western facade, where they were located around the portals or placed on the surface of the facade, on archivolts and capitals . The figures in the middle of the tympanum should have been larger than the corner ones. In friezes they acquired squat proportions, on bearing pillars and columns - elongated. Representing religious subjects, Romanesque artists did not seek to create the illusion of the real world. Their main task was to create a symbolic image of the universe in all its greatness. Also, Roman sculpture carried the task of reminding believers of God, the sculptural decoration amazes with an abundance of fantastic creatures, differs in expression and resounds of pagan representations. Romanesque sculpture conveyed excitement, confusion of images, the tragedy of feelings, estrangement from everything earthly.
Particular attention was paid to the sculptural decoration of the western facade and the entrance to the temple. Above the main promising portal was usually placed a tympanum with a relief depicting the scene of the Last Judgment . In addition to the tympanum, reliefs on the facade were decorated with archivolts , columns, portals, which depicted apostles, prophets and Old Testament kings.
In romance painting and sculpture, the central place was occupied by topics related to the idea of God's infinite and formidable power (Christ in glory, the “Last Judgment”, etc.). In strictly symmetrical compositions, the figure of Christ dominated undividedly, significantly exceeding the size of other figures. The narrative cycles of images (on biblical and gospel, everyday, occasionally - historical subjects) took on a more free and dynamic character. The Romanesque style is characterized by numerous deviations from real proportions (the heads and hands are disproportionately large, clothes are interpreted ornamentally , bodies are subject to abstract patterns), thanks to which the human image becomes a carrier of an exaggeratedly expressive gesture or part of an ornament, often without losing intense spiritual expressiveness. In all types of Romanesque art, patterns, often geometric or composed of motifs of flora and fauna, often played a significant role.
Existing examples of Romanesque painting include ornaments of architectural monuments, such as columns with abstract ornaments, as well as wall decorations with images of hanging fabrics. Paintings, in particular narrative scenes from biblical subjects and from the life of saints, were also depicted on wide surfaces of walls. In these compositions, which mainly follow Byzantine painting and mosaic, the figures are stylized and flat, so that they are perceived more as symbols than as realistic images. Mosaic, just like painting, was mainly a Byzantine technique and was widely used in the architectural design of Italian Romanesque churches, especially in St. Mark's Cathedral ( Venice ) and in Sicilian churches in Cefalu and Montreal.
In miniature art, a book miniature was mainly represented during this period. Multi-figure compositions and a new elongated type of human figure with a tense gaze appear in miniatures.
- Henry Hobson Richardson stylized his buildings under the Romanesque style in the XIX century, the style is known as the Richardson Romanesque style
- Romanesque architecture in the Czech Republic
- Romanesque art
- In the UK, Romanesque architectural style is traditionally referred to as the Norman style