Design engineer is an engineering specialty whose activity (work) is necessary for the development and creation of the final (target) product from the products and resources of the existing material production. For example: a design engineer for woodworking and furniture production, a structural engineer for steel structures, etc. By creating the final (target) product, this means the combination of products (resources), for example: assembly, installation, welding, concreting, etc.
Also an engineer , developer of structures , tools and mechanisms of electrical circuits   . In Western countries , especially in the USA , engineers are traditionally called electrical engineers , in fact, structural engineers , civil engineers , etc. Also in the US, the professions of architect and design engineer are considered to be closely related to design  .
In the Russian language in the early 1990s, the word " designer " appeared, denoting creative activity aimed at creating aesthetic and ergonomic technical means. When translating foreign publications and especially television and radio programs, translators very often forget that English. designer has several meanings that translate differently. Also, you should not confuse the designer with the draftsman , who only depicts the drawing in accordance with the state standard ( ESKD ) and is not directly involved in the development. As a rule, the designer conducts development, depicting the drawing independently.
Design Engineer Functions
Typically, the designer receives from the industrial designer and marketers the basic idea of development, customer expectations, and also the requested technical characteristics , which together, expressed in the agreed document, is the technical task for development. Then begins the design process. Often, developments must be consistent with production capabilities, available materials , employee qualifications , available packaging, and possible delivery methods to consumers .
The design engineer’s job is actually to develop an information model of the product and issue design documentation to the production. To do this, the design engineer must submit the product design options, justify the best design option, perform the assembly drawing, specification and detailing.
In the practice of foreign companies, less skilled work, such as paperwork, counting fasteners, etc., are often given to specialists who work in these areas ( drafters , see English drafter ), in Russia, mainly design engineers with a low category will do this.
In addition, together with the process engineer, the part is analyzed for manufacturability (finalization of the product design for the convenience of manufacturing on one or another technological equipment) and regulatory control (compliance of the drawing with regulatory documents, correct design).
If the equipment being developed affects public safety, then a license is required to carry out such activities. For example, in the USA a license of a “professional engineer” may be required  . In Russia, a developer organization must obtain a license to carry out appropriate development.
Article 4  of the Federal Law N128-ФЗ “On licensing of certain types of activities” states:
Licensed activities include activities whose implementation may result in prejudice to the rights, legitimate interests, health of citizens, defense and security of the state, the cultural heritage of the peoples of the Russian Federation and the regulation of which cannot be carried out by other methods than licensing.
However, this requirement usually does not apply to the development of devices for domestic production needs.
In the practice of domestic state-owned enterprises since the Soviet era, the following division of designers into categories has been adopted:
- without a category - performs the simplest work under the supervision of more experienced employees.
- Category 3 - the same as without a category, in addition, performs drawings of the simplest assembly units under control.
- Category 2 - the same as category 3, in addition, develops individual assembly units of low complexity.
- Category 1 - the same as category 2, in addition, develops components and assemblies on the instructions of the leader.
- Lead - develops the fundamentals of the design, kinematics of the mechanism , carries out general coordination of development, etc.
- main (general) - carries out general management of the design departments of the enterprise and coordination of their actions.
The following engineering positions are available:
- Mechanical engineer
- Process engineer
- Design engineer
- Civil engineer
At the same time, the development of computer technologies (primarily three-dimensional graphics and mathematical modeling ) led to the appearance of various CAD systems - both two-dimensional (for example, the well-known Autodesk AutoCAD and the Russian Compass-Graph ), and three-dimensional (for example, Autodesk Inventor , SolidWorks , Pro / ENGINEER , Bocad-3D , CATIA , Siemens PLM Software , domestic CAD Compass 3D, T-FLEX CAD ). CAD blurs the boundaries between these “no category” categories, 3 and 2, due to the obvious advantages and opportunities provided by CAD. For example, CAD allows you to create a model of the part in a visual representation and place it in the assembly, and also allow you to generate a drawing according to the existing model of the part. For more on CAD, see the related article. CAD simplifies the search and verification of technical solutions, but, of course, cannot fully automate this process.
The responsibility of some designers is to create prototypes , after which the prototype is criticized and revised. Prototypes are valid models and inactive ( layouts ). The current model is tested , and imitation is used to determine aesthetic parameters , as well as compliance with the task . All possible inconsistencies are identified and eliminated. At this stage, the design development of the product is completed, the design documentation is transferred to the technical archive . Next, a production preparation specialist, together with a process engineer, develops a process technology . Also at this stage, packaging development begins.
When, after numerous changes, the prototype is completed and the parts are manufactured, the assembly of the prototype begins. The lead designer of the product, together with the quality engineer and the head of the assembly shop, discuss the prototype comments and problems during the assembly process. Statistical control methods are also often used. Product variations correspond to certain aspects of the manufacturing process and are mutually destroyed. The most common indicator used is the process productivity factor C pk . The indicator C pk = 1.0 is considered the minimum for setting the product into production.
The more creative and better, after analyzing, the designer used the solution during development, the less expenses will be spent on the product manufacturing - resources, manufacturing time, cost of components, method and simplicity of manufacturing, etc.
The design engineer is responsible for the full cycle of solving the problem from the idea to the finished product, its installation, shelf life, safety, etc. Each technical document has its signature, which confirms the full efficiency of the idea, that is, a person is consciously ready to bear all responsibility for the long journey products: money, time, energy, investment and correction of a wrong decision.
The designer can accompany the product and make changes and modifications throughout the entire production time of the product. This principle is sometimes called "from the cradle to the grave."
What are the educational requirements for a design engineer
From the designer, as a rule, the following is required:
- higher, incomplete higher or secondary specialized education (construction technician)
- design engineer qualifications
- knowledge of the basic ("standard") structures and their elements on the subject of development;
- knowledge of techniques for creating technological , economical and efficient designs;
- knowledge of basic technologies and production methods.
In other countries, similar requirements are put forward for applicants:
- the title of Bachelor of Science in Design at an accredited educational institution ;
- experience or knowledge of design methods, production technology .
Those who wish to study in the specialty of a design engineer can attend additional classes in analytical geometry , physics and modeling .
Responsibilities of a design engineer in Russia
- Develops preliminary designs, technical and working designs of especially complex, complex and medium complexity products using design automation tools, the best practices of competitive products, while ensuring compliance of developed designs with technical specifications, standards, labor and safety standards, and the requirements of the most economical production technology, as well as the use of standardized and unified parts and assembly units.
- Conducts patent research and determines the technical level of the designed products.
- Draws up kinematic schemes, general layouts and theoretical relationships of individual structural elements based on circuit diagrams and outline designs, checks work designs and monitors drawings by specialty or work profile, takes sketches of complex parts from nature and performs complex detailing.
- Carries out technical calculations for projects, feasibility and functional-cost analysis of the effectiveness of the designed structures, as well as the calculation of risks in the development of new products, makes instructions for the operation of structures, explanatory notes to them, technical level cards, passports (including patent and license ), test programs, specifications, notices of changes in previously developed drawings and other technical documentation.
- It studies and analyzes the design documentation received from other organizations with a view to its use in the design and construction.
- Coordinates the developed projects with other divisions of the enterprise, representatives of customers and supervisory authorities, economically substantiates the developed designs.
- Participates in the installation, commissioning, testing and commissioning of prototypes of products, assemblies, systems and parts of new and modernized structures manufactured by the enterprise, in the preparation of applications for inventions and industrial designs, as well as in works to improve modernization, unification of designed products, their elements and in the development of draft standards and certificates.
- Provides feedback and conclusions on draft standards, rationalization proposals and inventions relating to individual elements and assembly units.
Requirements. The design engineer must know:
- decrees, orders, orders, other regulatory and methodological materials relating to the design preparation of production;
- design systems and methods;
- working principles, installation conditions and technical operation of the designed structures, the technology of their production;
- prospects for the technical development of the enterprise;
- equipment of the enterprise, used equipment and tools;
- technical characteristics and economic indicators of the best domestic and foreign product samples similar to those designed;
- technical requirements for the designs under development, the procedure for their certification;
- standards, methods and instructions for the development and execution of drawings and other design documentation;
- design automation tools;
- modern means of computer technology, communications and communications;
- methods of carrying out technical calculations during design;
- materials used in the construction and their properties;
- procedure and methods for conducting patent research;
- basics of invention;
- methods for analyzing the technical level of objects of engineering and technology;
- the basic requirements of labor organization in the design and construction;
- fundamentals of technical aesthetics and artistic design;
- fundamentals of computer-aided design systems;
- advanced Russian and foreign experience in designing similar products;
- fundamentals of economics, labor organization and management;
- the fundamentals of the labor legislation of the Russian Federation;
- internal labor regulations;
- rules and norms of labor protection, safety measures, industrial sanitation and fire protection  .
- New Product Development
- Search on Google for the keywords “Electrical Engineer . ”
- Yandex search for the keywords “Design Engineer-Electrician”
- Classification of professions. Engineering professions. US Office of Personnel Management.
- NSPE - “What is a Professional Engineer?”
- Text of Federal Law N128-FZ Archival copy of February 21, 2005 on the Wayback Machine
- Qualification reference book of positions of managers, specialists and other employees (approved by the Decree of the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation of 08.21.1998 N 37) Archived copy of May 6, 2014 on Wayback Machine // © ConsultantPlus