Stavropigia ( Greek σταυροπηγία , from σταυρός - “cross” + πήγνυμι - “install, install,” literally “cross- raising ”) is a status assigned to Orthodox monasteries , laurels and brotherhoods, as well as to cathedrals and spiritual schools, making them independent from the local monasteries diocesan authority and subordinates directly to the patriarch or synod . The literal translation of the “raising of the cross” indicates that in the Stavropegic monasteries the cross was erected by the patriarchs in his own hand. Stavropigial status is the highest.
History in Russia
Until the middle of the XV - the end of the XVI century, before acquiring the actual, and then legal autocephaly , monasteries in Russia that had a Stavropegic status (such as the Simonov Monastery near Moscow ) were considered Stauropean of the Patriarch of Constantinople , who was the head of the Russian Church .
From 1588 to 1720 - in the period of the Russian Patriarchate - there were 55 monasteries with the status of Stavropegic, for example, the Vysokopetrovsky monastery in Moscow occupied the 14th step in the stairs of the monasteries of the Patriarchal region  .
In the Synodal period, status implied the subordination of this monastery directly to the Holy Synod . By the end of the 19th century, there were only six cloisters in the Russian Empire (all male) that had the status of Stavropegic:
- Novospassky Monastery in Moscow;
- Donskoy Monastery in Moscow;
- Simonov Monastery in Moscow;
- Zaikonospassky monastery in Moscow;
- New Jerusalem Monastery in Moscow Province ;
- Solovetsky Monastery in the Arkhangelsk Diocese .
From 1764 to 1888, the Spaso-Yakovlevsky Dimitriev monastery in Rostov also enjoyed the status of Stavropigia.
The current period in the ROC
In 1984, Patriarch Pimen granted the status of the Stavropegial to the Korets Convent of the Rivne region of the Ukrainian SSR in connection with the conflict between the Mother Superior of the monastery and the Exarch of Ukraine, Metropolitan Philaret (Denisenko)  .
In the 1990s, when a mass transfer of closed monasteries to the Moscow Patriarchate took place , declaring the most significant of them “Stavropegic”, the meaning of the term was partially blurred in relation to the Moscow Diocese , where the Patriarch himself is the ruling bishop.
- Charter of the Russian Orthodox Church
Chapter IV Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.
10. The Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia is the Holy Archimandrite of the Holy Trinity St. Sergius Lavra, a number of other monasteries of particular historical importance, and governs all church stavropigiyami. The formation of Stavropegic monasteries and courtyards in the Moscow Diocese is carried out by decrees of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. The formation of Stavropegia within the limits of other dioceses is carried out with the consent of the diocesan bishop by the decision of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia and the Holy Synod .
The current (2000) Charter of the Russian Orthodox Church also states: "Stavropigialny monasteries are under the authority supervision and canonical administration of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia or of those Synodal institutions that the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia will bless such observation and management"  .
As of the end of 2012, under the jurisdiction of the Russian Orthodox Church, 28 monasteries belonged to the Patriarchal Stavropegia: 14 male and 14 female  , including six male and five women's monasteries located in Moscow (see List of Stavropegic Monasteries of the Russian Orthodox Church ).
On the territory of Ukraine, that is, under the authority of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (a self-governing church with the rights of broad autonomy), there are also several monasteries with the status of Stavropegic which are not controlled by the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. These monasteries received their Stavropegial status by decision of the Holy Synod of the UOC and are governed by the Metropolitan of Kiev and All Ukraine .
On the territory of the Belarusian Orthodox Church there are several Stavropegic monasteries, which received their status by the decision of the Holy Synod of the BOC and managed by the Patriarchal Exarch of All Belarus by the Metropolitan of Minsk and Zaslavsky .
Modern Stavropegic Cathedrals in Russia
- Trinity Cathedral of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery
- Nicholas Naval Cathedral (Kronstadt)
Stavropigial parishes outside Russia
- Stavropigialny Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky in Tallinn (Estonia).
- Stavropigiyskaya Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (UAOC)
- Stavropegic St. Vladimir's Church-monument in Jackson (USA).
- Stavropigial parish of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin in Manchester (England).
- Stavropigial parish of All Saints in Strasbourg (France).
- Stavropigial Holy Trinity Church in Ulan Bator (Mongolia)  .
Since March 2009, all the “foreign” (that is, located outside the territory of the main jurisdiction of the ROC) stavropegic (patriarchal) parishes of the Moscow Patriarchate are considered to be “directly subordinate to the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia”  . At the same time, “to assist the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia in the canonical, archpastoral, administrative, financial and economic care for the foreign institutions of the Russian Orthodox Church,” a special secretariat of the Moscow Patriarchate in foreign institutions was formed, in July 2010 transformed into the Moscow Patriarchate’s foreign institutions , which is headed by one of the Vicar of the Patriarch of Moscow.
- List of Stavropegic Monasteries of the Russian Orthodox Church
- Lviv Stavropigiysky Institute
- Typography Stavropigiyskogo fraternity
- Stavropigiysky Institute
- Stavropigiya Constantinople Patriarchate in Kiev
- From the history of the High-Petrovsky Stavropegic Monastery Archived on March 15, 2013. .
- G. Studennikova “Tomos was not given to loud applause” : What do the decisions of Constantinople in Ukraine mean? // Country.ua. - October 13, 2018.
- Ch. Xii. Monasteries, Clause 4 of the Charter of the ROC.
- Report of His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Kirill at the Diocesan Assembly of Moscow (December 28, 2012) . Patriarchy.ru
- Magazine No. 67 // Journals of the meeting of the Holy Synod of May 30, 2019 . - Patriarchy.ru. (Checked July 4, 2019) .
- Journal No. 18 // Journals of the meeting of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church on March 31, 2009 . - Patriarchy.ru. (Checked July 4, 2019) .