Triple intervention ( French Triple intervention , German Intervention von Schimonoseki ) - statements of Germany, Russia and France made by Japan on April 11 (23), 1895 with a demand to revise the terms of the Shimonoseki peace treaty with China, concluded on the basis of the Sino-Japanese war . They led to the rejection of Japan from the annexation of the Liaodong Peninsula , in exchange for an additional contribution from China in the amount of 30 million taels .
The triple intervention and subsequent events (in particular the transfer of the ports of the Kwantung Peninsula to Russia for rent in 1898) were one of the reasons for the Russo-Japanese war .
On April 23, 1895, Russia, Germany and France simultaneously, but separately, appealed to the Japanese government with a request to abandon the annexation of the Liaodong Peninsula , which could lead to the establishment of Japanese control over Port Arthur . As an additional argument in influencing the Japanese government, the Russian Empire announced the mobilization of troops of the Amur Military District    . Japan was forced to agree. On May 5, 1895, Prime Minister Ito Hirobumi announced the withdrawal of Japanese troops from the Liaodong Peninsula. The last Japanese soldiers went home in December.
In 1896, Russia entered into an alliance agreement with China , according to which it received the right to build a railway through the territory of Manchuria (see China-East Railway ). By this, Russia hoped to achieve two goals at once: to shorten the length of the railway and reduce construction costs, as well as accelerate the speedy assertion of Russian influence in Northern China, warning Japan in this regard, more and more openly demonstrating its expansionist claims  . The treaty also provided for joint military operations against Japan in the event of an attack by the latter on either side or on Korea.
In November 1897, Germany occupied Chinese Qingdao and began negotiations on its long-term (for 99 years) lease from China.
Opinions in the Russian government about the reaction to the capture of Qingdao were divided: Foreign Minister Muravyov , supported by War Minister Wannowski , advocated taking advantage of this opportunity to occupy the Chinese ports on the Yellow Sea, Port Arthur or Dalian-van, arguing that it was desirable for Russia to receive ( ice-free) port in the Pacific Ocean in the Far East. Minister of Finance Witte opposed this, indicating that
from this fact (the capture of Qingdao by Germany) ... it is in no way possible to deduce the conclusion that we must act just like Germany and make a capture from China. Moreover, such a conclusion cannot be drawn because China is not in an allied relationship with Germany, and we are in an alliance with China; we promised to defend China and suddenly, instead of defense, we ourselves will begin to seize its territory. [five]
Nicholas II , after some hesitation, supported the proposal of Muravyov, and on December 3 (15), 1897, Russian military vessels embarked on the Port Arthur raid  .
On March 15 (27), 1898 , Russia and China signed the Russo-Chinese Convention of 1898 in Beijing , according to which the ports of Port Arthur ( Lushun ) and Dalniy (Dalian) with adjacent territories and a water area were leased to Russia for 25 years it was allowed to lay to these ports a railway ( South Manchurian Railway ) from one of the points of the Sino-Eastern Railway .
The realization that Russia actually took away the Liaodong Peninsula captured during the war from Japan led to a new wave of militarization of Japan, this time directed against Russia, under the slogan “Gasin-setan” ( 臥薪嘗胆 , “dream on a board with nails”) , urging the nation to steadfastly bear the growth of taxation in order to prepare for a military revenge in the future  .
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