A dump truck , or garbage truck , is a lorry or other means of transport designed for loading, compacting, transporting and unloading garbage . As a rule, such cars have a capacious body up to 20, less often up to 50 m³, into which the garbage is loaded manually or mechanically, from a garbage can or from another garbage truck. The garbage truck is designed for the removal of garbage from the territory of settlements to landfills , transfer stations or waste incineration plants .
Containerization of waste
The types of garbage trucks used in a particular locality depend on the types of garbage containers used in it, and the choice of containers themselves depends on the nature of the garbage (household, household waste, construction waste, waste paper accumulating in retail outlets), and on local traditions and density population.
- With a low density of buildings (single-family homes), garbage dumping is unjustified. It is permissible to take out the garbage packed in strong bags, to the curb - directly in bags or in individual tanks (small containers, in Europe - standardized according to DIN 30740 to a capacity of 80, 120, 140 l). Such packages are loaded into the receiver of the garbage truck with rear loading manually.
- In dense urban development suitable containers of about 1 m³.
- Modern, so-called eurocontainers have a galvanized metal tank with a sliding lid, four wheels, and their shape allows the use of both machine loading using the manipulator and tipping the garbage truck into the receiver manually. The theoretical volume of eurocontainers according to EN 840-3 is normalized to 660, 770, 1000, 1100 l , while the calculated mass of garbage in a 1000 l container is not more than 400 kg, and the container itself weighs 67 kg. [one]
- Traditional Soviet containers, with a capacity of 0.7 m³, have an almost cubic form. Previously widely used garbage trucks, container, exported containers themselves, which were mounted on a flat platform manipulator. In some cities during the Soviet era, containers were not used. Instead, a garbage truck came to a certain time and the residents of nearby houses themselves came and dumped the garbage into the body. In modern Russia, they have been completely supplanted by garbage trucks transporting only garbage, but not containers — with rear loading (manually or using a hydraulic tipper), and with side loading (using a hydraulic tipper lift).
- For removal of bulky waste (construction waste, waste paper) open or closed bins (large containers) with a capacity of 5 m³ and above are used. They are transported by special dumping trucks with portal loading or multi-lift garbage trucks. With a shortage of funds, municipalities can use industrial containers and for the accumulation of normal, household, waste.
- For the removal of large non-containerized debris that is unsuitable for manual loading, use pairs of loader-dump truck or garbage trucks, equipped with a clamshell .
- Garbage trucks vary in body volume, as well as in terms of the mass of loaded waste. The volume of the body can vary from 6 to 20 cubic meters, carrying capacity starts from two tons and reaches a maximum carrying capacity of 10 tons. Garbage trucks, which have the function of pressing the waste loaded into them, also have such an indicator as the compaction coefficient, which ranges from 2.5 to 6 units. Garbage trucks on heavy-duty chassis, as a rule, have a greater compaction factor. At the same time, the loading of garbage trucks data is automatic, at which interchangeable containers of increased volume are used. 
- There are transport garbage trucks on the chassis of heavy trailers and semi-trailers. Garbage into such garbage trucks is reloaded from ordinary garbage trucks at waste transfer stations located within the city limits, and then transported to remote landfills. The volume of the body of transport garbage trucks can reach up to 50 m³, and carrying capacity up to 25 tons. The pressing mechanism compacts the garbage 5-6 times.
Principle of action
Garbage trucks are divided by the method of loading on:
- side loading 
- manual side loading
- side loading manipulator
- side loading tilter
- rear loading 
- with manual back loading
- mechanized rear loading
- with rear self-loader
- front loading - the container is thrown over the cabin and unloaded into the hatch located in front of the roof of the body
The main feature of garbage trucks is their ability to lift garbage cans. To do this, a garbage truck has a special kind of hydraulic grabs that cling to the garbage can, pick it up and then dump it in the body. The process of lifting the garbage lasts about one minute. Then the car puts the tank back to the ground.
There is another kind of garbage trucks - which do not lift the tank, and the body of the car plays the role of the tank, which the garbage truck removes and puts on the ground, and then takes it and takes it to the dump, where the garbage is recycled.
Garbage truck brands
' Side loading' ''
On the chassis GAZ
- 93M 4.4 m³ ( GAZ-51 )
- MS-4 3.7 t (GAZ-51A and GAZ-51D), 1955
- 53M 7 m³ / 5,3t ( GAZ-53 )
- KO-404 (GAZ-53-02)
- M-30 (container, GAZ-53A) 8 containers
- KO-820 ( Gazelle )
On the chassis ZIL
- MS-1 ( ZIS-5 ), 1946
- MS-2 10 m³ ( ZIS-150 ), 1949
- MKM-2 (ZIL-433362)
On the KAMAZ chassis
- M-71 ( KamAZ-5511 )
- KO - 440 - 5 - the most common in many cities of Russia. Body capacity is 22m³, diesel engine power is 169 kW.
- KO-440-6 - Body capacity - 22 m³ / 8500 kg, diesel engine power - 206 kW
- KO-440-7 16 m³ / 5500 kg
- KO-449-01 15.5 m³ / 5000 kg (KAMAZ 43253)
- MK-18 18 m³ / 5125 kg
On MAZ chassis
- M-50 (body, MAZ-500A)
On the KrAZ chassis
- UK-21 (transport, KrAZ-258)
' With rear loading' '' On Scania chassis
- With careless storage of garbage in the trash can, when lifting and installing the tank in its original place, some of the garbage in side-loading garbage trucks can fall out on the ground, after which the janitors have to put it back into the trash can.
- When using garbage trucks with internal combustion engines that do not meet modern environmental standards, it is possible to pollute the environment.
- Due to the violation of the rules of parking in the courtyards and narrow passages by irresponsible car owners, their cars interfere with the passage of garbage trucks on the basis of trucks, and utilities are forced to use garbage trucks of reduced size, which increases the cost of garbage collection.
- Garbage chute