Mansi ( Mans. Mansi ; obsolete - Vogul , Vogulichi ) - a small people in Russia , the indigenous population of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra . The closest linguistic relatives of the Khanty . They speak the Mansi language , but as a result of active assimilation, about 60% use the Russian language in everyday life.
|Modern self-name||mansi māhum|
|Abundance and area|
|Tongue||Mansi , Russian|
|Religion||traditional beliefs , Orthodoxy|
|Included in||Ugric peoples|
The total number of 12269 people. ( census 2010 ).
About 200 people live in the north of the Sverdlovsk region   . A few people are in the north-east of the Perm Territory (Vishera State Reserve).
The endo-ethnonym (self-name) Mansi means a person and goes back to the prefino-Ugric word * mańćɜ "man, person" and has parallels in other Ugric languages: the Khanty name of one of the phratries is mant (mańt́) ( B ), mont (mońt́) ( I ) , mas (maś) ( O ), as well as the self-name of the Magyar Hungarians. In different dialects of the Mansi, it has different forms: the Sosvinsky Mansi (mańśi), the Pelymsky mansi (māń ниж), the Lower Kondinsky mansi (mɔ̄̈ńś), the Tavdinsky mansi (mɔ̄̈ńś), the Lower Lezinsky mansi (måńń)   .
The name of the Mansi phratry Mos is borrowed from the Khanty mas (mɔś) ( О ), however, it has the same passage from the common Ugorian word * mańćɜ 
In Russian, to designate representatives of the people, there are words: inmany h. Mansi ( unshakable ) and Mansi ; at units including Mansi and Mansi , as well as Mansi (non-declining) to designate a man or woman. Adjectives Mansi and (immutable) Mansi  .
Until the 1920s and 1930s, Mansi were called in Russian by the word Vogula , which comes from the Khanty. u̯oɣaĺ, u̯oɣat́  . This name is still sometimes used in other languages, for example, it. Wogul, wogulisch .
Language and Writing
The Mansi language belongs to the Ob-Ugric group of the Ural (according to another classification - Ural-Yukagir ) language family. Dialects: Sosvinsky, Upper Lozvinsky, Tavdinsky, one Kondinsky, Pelymsky, Vagilsky, Middle Lozvinsky, Lower Lozvinsky.
Mansi writing has existed since 1931 - originally based on the Latin:
A, B, D, E, F, G, H, Ꜧ, I, J, K, L, Ļ, M, N, Ņ, Ŋ, O, P, R, S, S̷, T, Ţ, U, V, z, b
Since 1937 - based on the Russian alphabet. Later changed and supplemented. Modern option:
A a, Ā ā, B b, C c, D g, D d, E e, Ē ē, ё, F, Z s, I and, Ӣ ӣ, Y th, K c, L l, M m , Н н, Ӈ ӈ, О о, Ō ō, П п, Р р, С с, Т т, У у, Ӯ ӯ, Ф ф, Х х, Ц ц, Ч ч, Ш ш, Щ щ, b b, s, b, e, e, e, e, e, e, e
The literary language is based on the Sosvin dialect .
Origin and History
It is believed that, as an ethnos, the Mansi formed as a result of the merger of local tribes of the Ural Neolithic culture and Ugric tribes moving from the south through the steppes and forest-steppes of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan . Two-component nature (a combination of the cultures of taiga hunters and fishermen and the steppe nomadic pastoralists) in the culture of the people is preserved to this day.
Initially, the Mansi lived in the Urals and its western slopes, but the Komi and Russians in the XI - XIV centuries replaced them in the Trans-Urals . The earliest contacts with the Russians, primarily with the Novgorodians , date back to the 11th century . With the accession of Siberia to the Russian state at the end of the 16th century, Russian colonization intensified, and already at the end of the 17th century the number of Russians exceeded the number of the indigenous population. Mansi was gradually forced out to the north and east, in the XVIII century they were converted to Christianity , after conversion they were partially assimilated  . The ethnic formation of Mansi was influenced by various peoples.
In the Chanven (Vogul) cave, located near the village of Vsevolodo-Vilva in the Perm Territory, traces of the presence of Voguls were discovered. According to local historians, the cave was a temple ( pagan sanctuary) of the Mansi, where ritual ceremonies were held. In the cave were found bear skulls with traces of blows of stone axes and spears, shards of ceramic vessels, bone and iron arrowheads, bronze plaques of the Perm animal style with the image of a moose man standing on a lizard, silver and bronze jewelry.
The number of Mansi in Russia:
The number of Mansi in settlements in 2002: 
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug :
- urban-type settlement Kondinskoye - 876
- Khanty-Mansiysk city - 785
- Nizhnevartovsk city - 705
- urban settlement Igrim - 592
- urban-type settlement Mezhdurechenskiy - 585
- Saranpaul village - 558
- Sosva village - 440
- urban-type settlement Berezovo - 374
- Sugur village - 343
- Polovinka village - 269
- Hulimsunt Village - 255
- Leushi village - 240
- Vanzetur village - 235
- Lombovozh village - 203
- Surgut city - 199
- Nizhny Narykary village - 198
- Nyaksimvol village - 179
- Yumas Village - 171
- Aneeva village - 128
- Berry village - 125
- Peregrebnoye village - 118
- Listvenichny settlement - 112
- urban-type village Lugovoi - 105
- Kimkyasuy village - 104
Tyumen region :
- Tyumen city - 340
Culture and Traditions
Believers are Orthodox , but traditional shamanism , the cult of patron spirits, ancestors, and a bear ( bear holidays ) are preserved. Rich folklore , developed mythology .
Mansi are divided into two exogamous phratries : Por and Mos, historically differing in origin and customs. Marriages were concluded only between representatives of opposing phratries: Mos Mosleys married Por women and vice versa. Por's phratry was made up of descendants of the Ural Aboriginal people, and Mos phratry was made up of the Ugrians. The ancestor of Por’s phratry is a bear, and Mos’s phratry is a woman Kaltash, who could represent in the form of a goose, hare or butterfly. Judging by the archaeological finds, which will be discussed below, Mansi actively participated in the hostilities along with neighboring peoples, knew the tactics. The estates of princes (governor), warriors, and combatants stood out among them. All this is reflected in folklore.
In folk art, the main place is occupied by an ornament, the motives of which are similar to those of related Khanty and Selkups. These are geometric figures in the form of deer horns, rhombuses, wavy lines, a meander like the Greek, zigzag lines located more often in the form of a strip. Among bronze casting, images of animals, an eagle, a bear are more often found.
Traditional occupations are hunting , fishing , reindeer husbandry , farming , and cattle breeding . Fishing is common in the Ob and Northern Sosva . In the upper reaches of Lozva , Lyapina, Severnaya Sosva - reindeer herding, it was borrowed from the Khanty in the XIII - XIV centuries . Agriculture was borrowed from the Russians in the XVI - XVII centuries . The most developed areas of animal husbandry include horse breeding, as well as cattle and small cattle. In addition, poultry farming is developed. From commercial fish, grayling , ide , pike , roach , burbot , crucian carp , sturgeon , sterlet , nelmu , muksun , pike , pyzhyana , cheese were caught , and freshwater herring and an exquisite delicacy were also found in Northern Sosva. Tools for fishing: harpoons, nets. Caught fish, blocking the streams with dams. Of great importance in everyday life was the Siberian cedar , from which a huge crop of pine nuts was harvested. In addition, household items, dishes , boxes, boxes, baskets (the so-called rhizomes ) were made from wicker cedar root. Birch bark products, boxes, bowls, wooden dishes, spoons, troughs, ladles , and also simple furniture were common. Pottery was used. In the area of Priobye, archaeologists also discovered a large number of arrowheads, spears, swords , axes , helmets , bronze castings. They also knew armor. Mansi and neighboring nations also achieved some success in the processing of iron, but their greatest skill was manifested in the processing of wood. Of archaeological finds, silver dishes of Iranian and Byzantine origin are of great interest. To move the Mansi in ancient times used dugout boats, skis , sledges (with a dog, deer or horse cart). Of the weapons they knew about bows and arrows, bastards, and various types of blades. For hunting, various traps (chirkans) and self-arrows were used .
The settlements are permanent (winter) and seasonal (spring, summer, autumn) in the field of fishing. The village was usually inhabited by several large or small, mostly related families. The traditional dwelling in winter is rectangular log houses, often with an earthen roof, in the southern groups there are Russian-style huts, in the summer there are conical birch bark planks or quadrangular frame constructions made of poles covered with birch bark, in reindeer breeders they are covered with reindeer plague skins. The dwelling was heated and illuminated by a sens - an open hearth from poles smeared with clay. Bread was baked in separate ovens. The main dwelling was the plague .
Women's clothes consisted of a dress, a dressing gown, a cloth or satin, a double reindeer fur coat (frog, sah), a scarf, and a large number of jewelry (rings, beaded beads, etc.). Men wore trousers and a shirt, deaf clothes with a cloth hood, and reindeer breeders made of reindeer skin (malitsa, goose), or cloth clothes with a hood and un sewn sides (luzan). Food - fish, meat (dried, dried, fried, ice cream), berries. Mushrooms were not consumed, believing that they cause evil spirits.
The life of Mansi during the years of Soviet power has changed markedly, 45% live in cities.
Mansi (like Khanty ) are characterized by the following set of features:
- short stature (less than 160 cm on average for men),
- general gracility (miniature structure),
- a narrow head , meso- or dolichokephalic in shape and low in height,
- straight soft black or brown hair
- dark or mixed eyes
- the percentage of the Mongolian fold of the eyelid covering the lacrimal tubercle ( epicanthus ) noticeably varying in groups,
- a face of various shapes of medium height, with a noticeable flatness and stiffness,
- the nose is slightly or medium protruding, mostly medium in width, mainly with a straight or concave nasal bridge, with a raised tip and base,
- weakened beard growth,
- relatively wide mouth
- small lip thickness
- middle protruding or running chin  .
According to V.N.Kharkov, the Y-chromosome haplogroup N1b prevails in Mansi and Khanty - 57%, in the second place is the haplogroup Q1a3 - 21%. Then come the haplogroups R1a - 14% and N1c1 - 7.1%, R1b - 0.9%  .
An attempt to depict the material and everyday culture and customs of Mansi was made by the famous Ural writer S. N. Plekhanov , who published in 1985 in the literary almanac "Adventures-85" of the publishing house " Young Guard " the historical story "Golden Woman", dedicated to the search for Russian industrialists in the Urals in the first half of the 18th century, the legendary idol “The Golden Old Woman ”, described by foreign authors of the 16th century , in particular, S. Herberstein , A. Gvanyini and J. Fletcher . In 1986, at the Sverdlovsk film studio, director V. M. Kobzev put the eponymous film on this book. Consultations of specialist scientists and painstaking work of costume designers were held. All the roles of Vogulichi-Mansi in this adventure film were played by Kazakh actors ( N. Zhanturin ), Kyrgyz ( B. Beishenaliev , K. Dyusembaev), etc.
- Conductors, Ruslan Mikhailovich - Russian professional boxer.
- Rombandeeva, Evdokia Ivanovna - scientist, Finno-Ugrovedologist.
- Saynakhov, Grigory Nikolaevich - national master, musician.
- Nazarova, Svetlana Mikhailovna - Honored Reindeer Herder of the USSR.
- Shestalov, Yuvan Nikolaevich - writer.
- Golden woman (film)
- Peoples of the Arctic
- Official website of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census. Information materials on the final results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census
- All-Russian Population Census of 2002 . Date of treatment December 24, 2009. Archived August 21, 2011.
- S-sky A. Vogula of the Perm province. // Perm Provincial Gazette, December 20, 1897
- Rédei, Károly. Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch . - Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1988 .-- S. 866-867.
- Napolsky V.V. Yugra. (Early Ob-Ugric-Perm contacts and ethnonymy) // Anthropological forum. - SPb. , 2005. - No. 3 . - S. 261-262 .
- S. Ozhegov. Dictionary of the Russian Language: 70,000 words / Ed. N. Yu. Shvedova. - 23rd ed., Rev. - M .: Rus. Yaz., 1991 .-- 917 p. - ISBN 5-200-01088-8 .
- Vogul // Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language = Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch : in 4 volumes / auth. M. Fasmer ; per. with him. and add. Corr. USSR Academy of Sciences O. N. Trubacheva , ed. and with the foreword. prof. B. A. Larina [vol. I]. - Ed. 2nd, erased - M .: Progress , 1986-1987.
- Alenitsyn V.D. Voguls or Vogulichs // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Microdata database of the All-Russian Population Census of 2002
- G.A. Aksyanova. Results of Rasogenetic Studies of Ob Ugrians // Bulletin of Tomsk State University. - 2008. - No. 3 (4). - C. 21
- Kharkov V.N. Structure and phylogeography of the gene pool of the indigenous population of Siberia by Y-chromosome markers. Tomsk, 2012
- Alenitsyn V.D. Voguli or Vogulichi // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Gemuev I.N., Sagalaev A.M., Soloviev A.I. Legends and were of the taiga region. - Novosibirsk: Science, Siberian Branch, 1989 .-- 176 p. - A series of " Pages of the history of our country ." - ISBN 5-02-029181-1
- Gemuev I.N. , Sagalaev A.M. Religion of the Mansi people: Places of worship, XIX - beg. XX century / Ans. ed. E. I. Derevyanko ; USSR Academy of Sciences, Sib. Department, Institute of History, Philology and Philosophy. - Novosibirsk: Science , Sib. Otdel, 1986. - 192 p. - 2350 copies.
- Infantiev P.P. Travel to the country of Voguls . - SPb. : Publ. N.V. El'manova, 1910 .-- 199 p.
- Ischenko V., Sysuyev Yu. Mansi people: the history of resettlement (Inaccessible link) . Information and educational portal of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Ugra. Date of treatment February 11, 2011. Archived February 5, 2012.
- Mansi // Peoples of the World: Historical and Ethnographic Handbook / Ch. ed. Yu. V. Bromley . Ed. Collegium: S. A. Arutyunov , S. I. Brook , T. A. Zhdanko, et al., Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia , 1988. 624 pp., ill., 6 pp. col. kart.
- Mansi // Peoples of Russia. Atlas of cultures and religions. - M .: Design. Information. Cartography, 2010 .-- 320 p. - ISBN 978-5-287-00718-8 .
- Mansi // Siberia. Atlas of Asian Russia. - M .: Top book, Theory, Design. Information. Cartography, 2007 .-- 664 p. - ISBN 5-287-00413-3 .
- Mansi (people) // Lombard - Mesitol. - M .: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1974. - (The Great Soviet Encyclopedia : [in 30 vol.] / Ch. Ed. A. M. Prokhorov ; 1969-1978, vol. 15).
- Mansi // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- The peoples of Russia: a picturesque album, St. Petersburg, printing house of the Partnership “Public Benefit”, December 3, 1877, art. 190
- Nosilov K. D. Vogulov. Essays and drafts . - SPb. : Type of. A.S. Suvorin, 1904.- 255 p.
- Sokolova Z. P. et al. Mansi // Peoples of Western Siberia: Khanty. Mansi. Selkups. Nenets. Enets. Nganasans. Kets / Res. ed. I.N. Gemuev et al. - M .: Nauka , 2005 .-- S. 199-303. - 805 s. - (Peoples and cultures). - ISBN 5-02-010297-0 .
- Sokolova Z. P. Khanty and Mansi: a look from the XXI century . - M .: Nauka , 2009 .-- 756 p. - 800 copies. - ISBN 978-5-02-036755-5 . (inaccessible link)
- Encyclopedia " Peoples and religions of the world ", M., 1998.
- Myths, tales, traditions of Mansi (Voguls): In the records of 1889, 1951, 1958-1960, 1968, 1978, 1992, 2002 / Ed. ed. volumes E. N. Kuzmina. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2005 .-- 475 p. - ( Monuments of folklore of the peoples of Siberia and the Far East ; T. 26). - 1000 copies. - ISBN 5-02-032380-2 .
- Fedorova E. G. Mansi // Big Russian Encyclopedia : electronic version. - 2016. - Date of treatment: 03.03.2018.
- Burykin A.A. Bibliography of works on the language and culture of Mansi . Languages of the peoples of Siberia, endangered (2005). Date of treatment February 11, 2011. Archived February 5, 2012.
- Mansi Dictionary
- In the Sverdlovsk region discovered an ancient ritual site of the Mansi people . NEWSru.com (June 23, 2010). Date of treatment June 24, 2010. Archived on February 5, 2012.
- Tales, legends, legends and myths of the Mansi peoples . About Khanty and Mansi (2009). Date of treatment February 11, 2011.
- Mansi in the Perm region