Třebíč ( Czech .Tr̝̊ɛbiːtʃ ) is a city in the west of Moravia , in the south-eastern part of the Vysočina region of the Czech Republic . It is located on the Jihlava River and is the second largest city in Vysočina after Jihlava .
|History and geography|
|Center height||405 m|
|Timezone||UTC + 1 , in the summer UTC + 2|
|Population||36,880 people ( 2015 )|
|Telephone code||+420 568|
|Car code||J (old tr)|
On 01/01/2015 there are 36,880 inhabitants.  The birth of the city is associated with the foundation of a Benedictine monastery in 1101 , in its place is now located the castle. The first written mention of the city is the letter of Abbot Martin (czech listina opata Martina) , which belongs to 1277.  Trebic received city rights from the margrave of Charles in 1335 , and thanks to that could be strengthened with the help of the fortress wall and the moat . During his greatest ascent, Trebic was the most important center of Moravia after Olomouc and Brno , the local monastery was located almost until Opava  . The number of residents began to increase after World War II, together with the construction of houses, as well as panel neighborhoods, which served mainly as housing for the workers of the power plant under construction in Dukovany . Today Trebic is an important center of western Moravia and the administrative center of the region .
Trebic Square 57.6 km 2 , the city since 1995, is divided into 17 parts, of which 10 are located within the city building and 7 in the immediate vicinity - Borovina, Budikowice, Gorka-Domki, Eikov, Nove-Dvori, Nové Mesto, Pocoucov, Podklashtershi, Ptachov, Racherovice, Rzipov, Slavice, Sokoli, Starecka, Tõn, Vitsirshni Place, Zamosc. There are important monuments in the city; the Jewish quarter, which includes the old synagogue and one of the oldest Jewish cemeteries in Europe , and the Basilica of St. Prokop in 2003 were declared monuments of UNESCO . Charles Square in the city center is one of the largest squares in the Czech Republic. Noteworthy is the tower with a height of 75 m, which belongs to the church of St. Martin, as well as numerous Renaissance buildings.
From the founding of the city until 1420.
At the site of the future city at the beginning of the XII century there was the Trebic Forest mentioned in the Czech Chronicle . An older settlement did not exist at this place. The only archaeological finds that may be older than the monastery were found in the area of Charles Square. The history of Trebic begins in 1101 with the founding of the Benedictine monastery by the princes Oldrich of Brno and Litold Znoimsky , sons of Conrad I. The foundation of the monastery was primarily a political act, and later on the monastery served mainly economic and economic purposes. The location was on the border of the Znojm and Moravian regions. Through it passed multiple trade routes.  The powerful monastic fortress took under its auspices the development of communication routes between central and southern Moravia , southern and middle Bohemia . Near the monastery began to appear commercial settlements, which grew into the city of Trebic in the XIII century. A prerequisite for their creation was the development of crafts in this area. One of these settlements was the Podklašterši district, which is now part of modern Trebic, located on the left bank of the Jihlava . He attracted not only merchants and Jews, but also numerous artisans. Its rapid growth was limited by the river and the cliffs, which served to further wilt this trading place, which was forced to move to the right bank. Only Jews remained in Podklashtershi, where one of the oldest Jewish settlements in Moravia arose (see the Jewish Quarter in Trebic ).  Trebic was laid on the right bank of Jihlava . The place was unfortunate, as it was flooded, but numerous artisans of the city needed running water. The first written mention of the city of Trebic is found in the diploma of Abbot Martin 1277. It also follows that most of the inhabitants of the city at that time were of Czech nationality.  Trebic was the property of the monastery, and that in turn was the property of the king. According to the laws of that time, it was impossible to build a city without the consent of the king, but no written documents about it survived.  In 1312 and 1315, the city was visited by Johan of Luxembourg and defended the city from aggression by Yimram from Boskovitz, the owner of Sadek castle (which at that time was called Ungersberg), capturing the castle and executing 18 robbers  .
An important historical moment was the obtaining of the rights of the city from the margrave of Charles in 1335 , thanks to which fortifications were made possible with the help of the fortress wall and the moat . In addition to the system of three gates, the Vienna Gate in the south, the Brno Gate in the east and the Jihlaw Gate in the west, the building of stone walls was completed, the tower of St. Martin became part of the city fortification.
During the Hussite Wars from 1421 to 1426 the city and monastery were occupied by the Hussites . During the war between the Hungarian king Matthias Korvin and the Czech king George from Poděbrady the city was severely damaged. On May 12, 1468 , Trebic was besieged by the Hungarians, led by Matthias Corvinus , within two days the city was captured, ransacked and burned. According to the chronicles of Eliash Strelki, the women and children were sent by Matthias with military escort to Velké Meziříčí , where they took refuge. The city’s defensive army, Pan Quiz , the son of Jiří from Podebrady , took refuge in the monastery, destroying the bridge over the river. The guards with food remained on the bank or fell into the river.  The food supplies of the monastery dried up, and on the night of 5–6 June, the troops of Quiz from Poděbrady, divided into three groups, tried to break through the siege to unite with the army of Pan Jindřich from Podebrady , brother of Quiz. Two of the detachments succeeded, the third detachment surrendered to the Hungarians on 15 June. In fact, the city was destroyed. Only seven years later, the empty city began its restoration.  
Trebic received Zdenek Konopishtsky from Sternberk for supporting Matthias in the war for the crown, as well as compensation for lost lands in Bohemia. The new owner was in no hurry to restore the city and the monastery because of the debts of the monastery, as well as hopes to return their lands to Bohemia. The initiators of the restoration were residents of the city. After the death of Zdenek, Matthias distanced himself from his sons and demanded that the monastery be returned to the abbot. It is not clear what exactly happened next. From the Zemstvo boards it is known that the son of Zdenek Jaroslav until 1481 was in Trebic, and then the monastery with its property passed from hands to hands of various nobles for several years. On December 15, 1490 , Willem of Pernstein became the owner on condition that he would pay all the debts of the monastery. In 1491 , Wilhelm paid an incredible amount of 15,500 Hungarian gold for those times, stating in the terms of the transaction that if the king, margrave, or Benedictines wanted to return the monastery, they must compensate for this amount. Willem was engaged in the economic development of the city and its environs, carried out the necessary repairs in the monastery, during which he was forced to demolish a practically collapsed tower.  After the death of Willem, his son Jan IV from Pernstein inherited the city and its environs, who sold the city to Jan Jetrich, with the condition that if he had no heirs, the city would return to the Pernsteins, which happened in 1546. Jan Yetrih drove the Jews out of the city. And on the return of the city to the possession of Jan IV from Pernstein, he continued this policy, thereby eliminating the Jews in the trade competition. After the death of Jan IV of Pernstein in 1548, his son Vratislav became his heir, who sold Trebic and its associated possessions.
Burian Osovsky from Doubravice bought Trebic Monastery with a mill, a town of Trebic with its suburb and numerous villages. In Zemsky boards the deal is indicated in 1558 . Osovskie remained owners until 1613 . In order to buy Trebic, Buriam Osovsky sold a significant portion of his possessions. Buriam Osovsky developed fish farming and brewing. After his death in 1568, Smil, his son, became his heir. Trebic was in a difficult financial situation, had numerous debts. Two successful marriages helped him partially to resolve the situation, in 1572 with Bogunka from Zherotin and in 1589 with Katerina Walshtein. Smil led numerous economic and economic documentation. From it followed that a growing number of houses in the city. In 1556, it numbered 372 houses and about 2,400–2,800 inhabitants, in 1573 - 376 houses from 2,700–3,100  . Increased revenues of the city. Vineyards were cultivated east of Trebic in Vladislav, but, according to the memoirs of contemporaries, the wine was sour and unappetizing. A paper factory appeared in the city, the magic paper was considered very high quality. Smil also tried to introduce a fire safety system in the city: the ladders and buckets for fire fighting were prepared in designated areas, the safety of chimneys was checked, it was forbidden to have excess straw and firewood in the houses. But all these security measures did not save the city from one of the biggest fires in 1599. 113 houses were destroyed. At the end of the XVI century and at the beginning of XVII , the number of foreigners in the city began to grow: Germans, Slovaks and Italians. The most famous Italian was Frantisek Caligardo, a Venetian merchant who owned the Little House. During the reign of the Osovs, all the evangelical churches were free. The development of reading liturgy in Czech was supported. During the Osovsky monastery, the Trebic monastery was finally rebuilt into the ancestral castle, all the buildings of the former monastery served economic purposes, including the Basilica of St. Prokop was turned into a brewer. The city was also rebuilt, many of the houses on Charles Square acquired Renaissance features, the brightest of them being the Little House and the Black House, decorated with graffiti . The Catholic Church of the Holy Trinity in the new cemetery was also rebuilt in the Renaissance style. The tower of St. Martin continued to be the highest building in the city.
1618-1648 Thirty Years War.
After the death of Smil Osovsky, his wife Katezhina Valdshtein inherited the Magic possessions, and in 1614 she confirmed the Augsburg Confession in the city. On June 22, 1614 , she married Karel the Elder of Zherotin , a Moravian Zemstvo hetman. At the same time, Katerzhina independently managed the Czech possessions. In 1618, the second Prague Defenestration took place, with which the uprising of the Czech estates began . Karel the Elder of Zherotin did not support a rebellion against legitimate authority. On November 23, 1618, Jiří Erasmus Tshernemble and Ladislav Velen from ерerotín arrived in Trebic as representatives of the rebellious side, but Karel refused to participate in the uprising, thereby exposing himself to the risk of losing political and personal influence. In Moravia, there were already insurgent sentiments, and Karel found himself isolated. In the end, he was forced to move to Rositsky Castle. At first, the defeat at White Mountain didn’t concern Trebic, despite the fact that for the most part its non-Catholic population sympathized with the defeated king.  A relative of Katerina’s, Eliška Zheratinska from Waldstein, wrote to her a week after the battle about the cruel and treacherous actions of the victorious army in the vicinity of Prague. 
On December 9, 1620, Karel the Elder of Zherotin received from Ferdinand II a security certificate for his possessions and Trebic. Thanks to this diploma in December 1620, Trebic managed to avoid the pogroms that took place in Moravia, headed by Karl von Bükch . The army left guards in Trebic, which organized the robberies in the surrounding villages, forbade the burghers to leave the walls, destroyed non-Catholic services. At the same time, in comparison with other cities, Trebic remained an oasis of calm. The years 1622 and 1623 were among the worst for Trebic. At the beginning of 1622, a regiment of 500 people, General Balthazar Marradas, moved to Trebic, creating a significant financial burden on the city. The regiment remained in Trebic until October 1622. In December 1623 Trebic was forced to accept two Silesian regiments for defense against Gabor Bethlen . The maintenance of three thousand troops for thirty days cost the city more than 90,000 gold. Two companies of General Jan Merodet wintered in Trebic from 1622 to 1623 and continued to remain there until June 1623. The cost of maintaining the army again fell on the city, which was eventually forced to apply for a loan to Katerina from Waldstein.
On May 10, 1628, a new charter was issued for Moravia, which proclaimed the transfer of rights to the throne to the Habsburgs, equalized German with Czech, and Catholicism was declared the only religion. In this connection, on September 27, 1629, Karel and his wife left Trebic. The couple stayed in Vratislav and had the permission of the emperor to return to Moravia, informing in advance their intention to the officials. In the spring of 1628, Kateřína ceded the rights to Trebic to her brother Adam from Waldstein. In the contract it was indicated that if Katerina could return to permanent residence in Moravia, she would return the right to own Trebic, and the new owner must pay her 6,000 Moravian gold every month. Adam from Waldstein gave this right to his son Rudolf, who was extremely reluctant to fulfill his financial obligations to Katerina. After the death of Karel on October 9, 1636 and his wife two years later, their bodies were transported to Trebic, where they were buried without ceremony. According to the testament of Katerina, dated February 6, 1637, Trebic was to remain in the possession of Rudolph, with subsequent inheritance through the male line. In 1628-1629, many other residents of Trebic emigrated, mainly to Hungary and Poland, their exact number is unknown. At the end of the war, Trebic repeatedly had to maintain various military units, including Swedish units in Jihlava.
The emblem of the city is a red shield with a white horizontal field on which are located the three black hoods of Benedictine monks. The lower and upper parts are red, previously decorated with silver arabesques. Three hoods symbolize the three parts of Trebic: Trebic Abbey, and the probings of Komarov and Merzhin.  The flag of the city with similar symbols was approved on July 15, 1993. 
The climate of Trebic is moderate continental . About 560 mm of precipitation falls annually (about 350–400 mm fall on the growing season, about 200–250 mm on the winter season). The average annual temperature is 7.5 ° С, in July 18.5 ° C and −3.4 ° С in January.
|Absolute Maximum, ° C||14||15||20||27||thirty||35||35||36||29||25||18||12|
|Average maximum, ° C||0||3||7||14||nineteen||22||24||24||18||12||6.0||one|
|Average minimum, ° C||−5||−4||0.0||four||9||12||13||13||9||five||one||−4|
|Absolute minimum, ° C||−21||−19||−16||−7||−1||0||6||6||0||−6||−11||−20|
Trebic has an area of 56 km² and is divided into 10 cadastral districts and 17 parts, 10 of which are urban areas, and the remaining 7 are in close proximity. The largest district is Slavice, the smallest is Zamosc. The largest number of inhabitants lives in the area of Novi-Dvori, and the smallest in Rzhipov.
Borovina (526 houses, 5,864 inhabitants) is one of the fairly new parts of Trebic. Its occurrence is associated with the company that manufactures shoes owned by Karl Budishovski. For this purpose, numerous houses for workers were built. For the needs of this company, a rather large fuel oil spill station was built in this part of the city to serve the boiler house. In the future, the company passed Tomash Batya .
Budikowice (61 houses, 199 inhabitants) is a village that is part of Trebic. The first written mention of the village dates back to 1556 , when 16 landowners and one tenant or owner of the yard lived in the village.
Gorka-Domki (1,158 houses, 7,788 inhabitants). In this part there are mainly residential buildings, but there are also a couple of former enterprises and one operating one. TEDOM buses are manufactured here. As of 2001, 7788 inhabitants lived in the area.
Yeikov (91 houses, 270 inhabitants). In the old days, the district was a suburb of Trebic. Here is a number of government agencies and industrial facilities. A significant part of the modern industrial area is located in the southern part, the winter stadium Horácká Slavia and the HFK football field Trebic are also located nearby. There is a hospital in Ejkow Trebic, as well as several schools and a secondary school.
Nové Dvori (987 houses, 16,657 inhabitants). This is one of the largest and most densely populated areas of Trebic. Mostly residential houses are located here. Panel houses were built in the 70s due to the Dukovany nuclear power plant . Nové Dvori already existed in the Middle Ages.
Nove Mesto (161 houses, 1056 inhabitants). The area originated in the XV century . Most of it is not built up, it consists of forest and fields. Nové Mesto originated, possibly, after the restoration of the city at the end of the 15th century. Part of the city was in the middle of the XVI century.
Potsoutsov (59 houses, 183 inhabitants). The village is located 1.5 km from the center of the city. Potsoutsov belongs to the oldest farm of the Trebic Monastery , the first written mention of it dates back to 1101. The village became part of Trebic in 1980 .
Podklashtershi (1,009 houses, 3,899 inhabitants). In this part of the city are the Basilica of St. Prokop , a UNESCO monument, as well as the Vysočina Museum. Podklashtershi - the oldest part of the city. Initially, it was an independent settlement, it became part of Trebic at the beginning of the 20th century. Earlier in this part was a distillery. There is also a dog shelter and a stable here.
Ptachov (66 houses, 212 inhabitants). In this part of the city there is only one private residential house, the rest of the buildings are farm buildings. Ptachov and its surroundings belong to the Trebiczko Nature Park. There is also a natural monument Ptachovsky hillock. In the vicinity there are several ponds. In Ptachov, bones of prehistoric animals were found: a mammoth, a reindeer, a wild steppe horse and a tour. Ptachov became part of Trebic on January 1, 1980.
Racěrovice (49 houses, 155 inhabitants). The village is located 6 km north of Trebic.
Жipov (22 houses, 68 inhabitants). It belonged to the Trebic monastery since its foundation. The settlement became part of Trebic in 1960.
Slavice (80 houses, 246 inhabitants). The first written mention of Slavice refers to 1303 , when the witness Detlin and Kunrath, brothers from Slavice are mentioned in the letter of the lady from Hodits. In 1371 the village was annexed to the castle Rukštejn by the margrave Jan Yidršihim.
Sokoli (44 houses, 88 inhabitants). The village, located 4 km from the city center, is part of Trebic. Sometime in the area they tried to mine silver. There is a legend that in Virša cliff (300 meters southeast of the district center) there is an exit from the secret passage of the Trebic monastery. According to some opinions, it is most likely an old adit.
Starechka (202 houses, 539 inhabitants). One of the oldest parts of the city. Most likely, it is mentioned in the list of monastic property in 1104 as Staritsi. Somewhere around 1220 a trading settlement arose here, which in fact moved from the Podklaštershi area, which was bounded by rocks and the Jihlava River, which hampered its further development. Its creation precedes the creation of the city of Trebic itself. An interesting dispute arose in the XVII century with the nobles of Trebic in connection with the ban on brewing in the suburbs. Residents of Starechka argued so on this issue, “that the suburb of Staretska, as the name says, is older than the city of Trebic itself, and even had its own privileges, four houses for cooking and several houses for malt production. Because of the evil wartime, that privilege was treacherously seized by the mayor Formanckem, who then lived in Starechka, and transferred to Trebic and never returned. ”  The Market Square of Starečka was also the predecessor of the city of Trebic, which arose later a little east. In the 80s, a bus station was built in the southern part of this ancient former market.
Tin (203 houses, 1,171 inhabitants). Since 1960 is part of the city of Trebic. Since its accession, the Tin district has grown substantially and has lost its original appearance characteristic of the village. Tin arose as a trading settlement on the old trade route leading to Příbislavica, today it is Zdislavina street. The settlement since the foundation of the Trebic Monastery was its property. [sixteen]
Vithršni Mesto (53 houses, 210 inhabitants) is the center of the city. One of the oldest parts of the city, its center is Charles Square, in popular speech - the market. In this part there are numerous petty-bourgeois houses, including the Malovany and Cherny houses, the town hall, the statue of Cyril and Methodius.
Zamosc (124 houses, 416 inhabitants). The smallest part of Trebic, also belongs to the oldest parts of Trebic. The Jewish quarter is almost entirely in this part. The first mention of the area dates back to 1410 . Before joining Trebic in 1931 , the district functioned as an independent settlement (for more details, see the Jewish quarter in Trebic ). In 1990, Zamosc was declared a monument. In 2001, several objects declared cultural monuments. In 2003, the Jewish quarter was included in the UNESCO list of monuments.
There are many historical and cultural monuments in Trebic. The main attractions are the Jewish quarter and the Basilica of St. Prokop , declared in 2003 as UNESCO heritage sites .
The Jewish quarter in Trebic is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, one of the best-preserved Jewish neighborhoods in Europe. The Trebic Jewish Quarter is the only Jewish monument outside of Israel , declared a UNESCO monument. The quarter is valuable in general, especially the original historical layout.
The Jewish cemetery in Trebic is the national cultural monument of the Czech Republic  . The cemetery was founded in the second half of the XV century. Until about 1468, Jews were buried right under the walls of the monastery. Approximately 2,600 tombstones can be found at the cemetery, the oldest dating back to 1631. A total of about 11,000 people were buried there. In 1888, the cemetery suffered from flooding and then expanded southward (a new part of the cemetery). In this part of the cemetery there is a monument to the victims of the First World War (installed in 1922 , 20 victims) and the Second World War (installed in 1957 , 290 victims).
Basilica of St. Prokop
The Basilica of St. Prokop ( czech Bazilika svatého Prokopa ) is a Romanesque-Gothic Catholic church located in the Czech town of Trebic. Built on the site of the chapel of the Virgin Mary of the Benedictine monastery between 1240 and 1260 . As part of the object
“ The monastery with the church of St. Prokop in Trebic” was recognized as the national cultural monument of the Czech Republic in 2002, and in 2003 the Basilica of St. Procopius in Trebic was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List along with the Jewish quarter.
Across the river from the Jewish quarter is Charles Square, which is the center of the city. The area in size is 22,000 m 2 and was laid as a trade, so the people often call it the market. Charles Square is only a few square meters smaller than Wenceslas Square in Prague , so that in the past the city could be equal in size to the royal cities. At the beginning of the 19th century, the square still had elements of the Renaissance and Baroque, but they were destroyed in a fire in 1822 . Currently, markets, fairs, cultural events, folk festivals and celebrations are held on Karlovaya Square. On the Charles Square is the town hall. In the south-west corner stands the Maleva House (c. Malovaný dům), a Renaissance building decorated with graffiti , which houses an information center and a gallery.  The Black House ( czech Černý dům), another Renaissance monument, has similar sgraffito . In 1885, a monument to Cyril and Methodius was erected on the square  ; in the past, criminals were punished at this place by decapitation or a pillory.  The permanent exhibition of František Mertl ( czech František Mertl ), a painter and sculptor who was born in Trebic, is in the Folk House on Charles Square. 
City tower and church of St. Martin of Tours
The tower has a height of 75 m and a clock with a diameter of 5.5 m. It was built in 1335 , when Trebic received city status. It was originally a watchtower in the security system of the city. In 1468 the dome of the tower was destroyed by fire during the invasion of the Hungarian troops . In 1577 and 1822 the tower again suffered from fires, the roof was destroyed. The modern roof has been preserved since 1862. The last repair of the tower took place in two stages in 1996. In 1716 , the tower of the church of St. Martin became owned. The Church of St. Martin - a Roman Catholic church, was founded in the XIII century by Abbot Martin.
Other religious monuments
- Chapel of Saints Peter and Paul (Eikov district)
- Capuchin Monastery (Eikov district)
- Catholic church of the Transfiguration (Eikov district)
- Orthodox Church of St. Wenceslas and Ludmila (Gorka-Domka district)
- Church of Evangelists (Gorka-Domki district)
- Catholic church of the Holy Trinity (Gorka-Domka district)
- Catholic church of St. John of Nepomuk (Slavice district)
A Dutch type windmill in Trebic served the needs of tanners. The mill building of several floors, built of stone and brick, was originally wooden. It was completed in 1836. The mill never ground flour. At one time served as a warehouse. In 1977 it was reconstructed and closed.
Savings Bank Building (Fuchs Savings Bank)
The functionalist building, designed by architects Bohuslav Fuchs and Yidřich Kumposht in 1933 , is located in the northwestern corner of Charles Square. Initially, the building was a three-story, the fourth floor was added in the second half of the XX century.
The Russian city of Pavlovsk ( Voronezh Oblast ) was previously twinned with Trebic  .
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