Puppet animation is a method of volume animation . When creating, a stage layout and puppet actors are used. The scene is photographed frame by frame, after each frame, minimal changes are made to the scene (for example, the doll’s pose changes). When reproducing the resulting sequence of frames, an illusion of the movement of objects appears. The widest selection of materials and techniques for performing decorations, figures, objects is allowed.
The first puppet cartoon appeared in Russia in 1906      . The animator was the choreographer of the Mariinsky Theater Alexander Shiryaev , who created the tape in which 12 figures dance against the background of motionless scenery depicting the stage. The film was shot on a 17.5 mm film. The shooting lasted three months, during which time Shiryaev rubbed his feet in the floor, as he constantly walked from the movie camera to the scenery and back.
These films were discovered in the archive of Shiryaev by film expert Viktor Bocharov in 2009. Several puppet cartoons were also found there: “Clowns Playing Ball”, “Artists of Pierrot” and a love drama with the happy ending of “Harlequin Jokes”. Modern animators cannot unravel the secrets of the animator, since Shiryaev’s dolls not only walk on the ground, but also jump and spin in the air      .
Before the discovery of the film by Alexander Shiryaev, the Russian filmmaker Vladislav Starevich , who had been working in this technique since 1911, was considered the founder of volumetric animation for a long time.
Among the most prominent early animators are Willis O'Brien , known for his special effects for the blockbusters Lost World (1925) and King Kong (1933), Alexander Ptushko , who participated in the creation of many pre-war Soviet cartoons (including the famous the film " New Gulliver ", combining cartoon and live acting), as well as Jiri Trnku , Germina Tyrlova and Karel Zeman - the founders of the Czech school of volumetric animation.
In the 1960s new names came to the domestic puppet animation: Roman Kachanov , Vladimir Degtyarev , Vadim Kurchevsky , Nikolai Serebryakov and others.
The film “ Mitten ” by Roman Kachanov won a number of prestigious prizes at foreign festivals, and also reopened the Russian school of puppet animation to foreign viewers. His films " Cheburashka ", " Crocodile Gene " and " Shapoklyak " became a recognized classic of world animation. Yuri Norshtein began his career as a puppeteer in Kachanov’s films.
In Czechoslovakia, Jiri Trnka , Karel Zeman and Jiri Barta were engaged in puppet animation. Hungarian by birth J. Pal worked in this area in the UK and in the USA.
In Estonia, the Tallinnfilm studio worked only with puppet animation until 1971. Puppet tapes were created by Riho Unt, Elbert Tuganov, Heino Pars.
In Latvia, Arnolds Burovs , who created more than forty films, became the founder of puppet animation in the 1960s. In the 1990s, the tradition of his films was continued in its own way by the Animacijas Brigade studio, which used plasticine dolls in its films.
In Japan, a pupil of Jiri Trnki and Roman Kachanov, Chihiro Kawamoto, worked in puppet animation.
Christian Sedzawski 's full-length puppet film, Bloody Tea and a Red String, completed in 2006 (filming lasted 13 years), was awarded numerous awards at international film festivals.
Some famous puppet films
- The New Gulliver (1935)
- The Hand (1965)
- The Mitten (1967)
- The Crocodile Gene (1969)
- " 38 Parrots " (1976-1991)
- The Corpse of the Bride (2005) , ,
- “ Coraline in the Land of Nightmares ” (2009)
- Category: Puppet cartoons
- Doll actor
- Plasticine animation
- Hand-drawn animation
- Evgeny Ksenzenko Animated films of NTV Television Company, Today program, April 13, 2009
- Who made dolls dance? Archived September 28, 2011 on Wayback Machine 100 TV Channel, March 06, 2009
- Sensation in the world of cinema: the first Russian cartoon was found // Film History.
- Tatyana Kirillina The very first Russian cartoon // Evening Petersburg. March 06, 2009
- E. Yarov The very first puppet film was shot by Alexander Shiryaev EuroSMI, March 7, 2009