Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi ( Kazakh: ҚҚа Ahmet Yasawi kesenesi ; Uzbek. Xoja Ahmad Yassaviy maqbarasi ) - a mausoleum on the grave of the poet and preacher Khoja Ahmed Yasawi , located in the city of Turkestan in the Turkestan region of Kazakhstan . It is the central object in the territory of the historical and cultural museum-reserve " Hazret-Sultan ".
|Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi|
|kaz. Lady Ahmet Yasawi Kesenesi|
Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi
|Type of building||mausoleum|
|Building||1385 - unfinished|
|Famous inhabitants||Kazakh khans|
|Relics and Shrines||Tai cauldron|
|Status||UNESCO World Heritage Site, protected by the state.|
The modern mausoleum was built on the burial place of the Sufi poet Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, who had great authority among the Muslims of the region and had a significant influence on Islam in Central Asia. He died in 1166 (67) and was buried with great honor in a small mausoleum  .
The existing mausoleum was erected 233 years after his death by order of Tamerlane . In 1395, Tamerlan defeated Khan Tokhtamysh , the ruler of the Golden Horde, and burned the horde capital Saray-Berke . In honor of this victory, the commander decided to build a new, grandiose memorial complex on the site of the old mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, which by that time had become very dilapidated. In this decision, Tamerlane was guided by both religious beliefs and political goals. Building a mausoleum on the grave of a respected man, he asserted his power and strengthened his authority. Some historians believe that Tamerlan himself personally took part in drawing up a project for the future mausoleum and gave instructions to its builders.
Tamerlan himself determined the main dimensions of the building, in particular, the diameter of the large dome was supposed to be 30 yaz (a unit of measure of length equal to 60.6 cm). This module (gyaz) determined the dimensions of all other parts of the structure. Tamerlane’s decree also contained recommendations regarding some of the decorative details of the building and its interior decoration.
Back in 1385, on the orders of Tamerlane, a monastery of Sufis, followers of Yasavi , was founded on the site of the grave of Yasavi, but the completion of the mosque stopped immediately after his death in 1405 . After the death of Tamerlane, only the entrance portal remained unfinished.
In constructing this building, Persian architects applied a number of innovative architectural and construction solutions that were used in the construction of Samarkand , the capital of the Timurid Empire. Today the mausoleum is one of the most significant and well-preserved structures of that era.
During the Kazakh Khanate , the mausoleum was the residence of Kazakh khans.
In the Soviet period, a republican anti-religious museum was located in the mausoleum by a decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR  .
Features of the mausoleum complex
The Azret-Sultan memorial complex, in addition to the Khoja Ahmed Yasawi Mausoleum itself, includes many other structures built next to it in different years, namely the medieval bathhouse (monsha), cell (hilvet) where Yasavi lived after he was 63 years old, the mausoleum of Tamerlane’s great-granddaughter and the daughters of the astronomer Ulugbek Rabiya - Sultan Begim , the mausoleum of the Kazakh khan Yesim , Shildehan and other ancient monuments, among which there is a miraculously preserved underground house for thought Kumshik-ata. In general, the entire complex of objects is sometimes referred to as a “historical and cultural reservation”.
Yasavi Mausoleum consists of a huge, rectangular building (46.5x65.5 meters) with portals and domes . The height of the arch portal is 37.5 meters, the height of the main dome is 44 meters, and the diameter is 22 meters. The thickness of the outer walls is almost 2 meters, the walls of the central hall are 3 meters thick. The building has a huge entrance portal and many domes. Around the central hall there are more than 35 rooms, with 12 rooms on the ground floor and 23 on the second. Due to the unexpected death of Tamerlane on the way to China, the second floor of the mausoleum was unfinished due to which people are not allowed to this day. The door of the tomb is decorated with beautiful ivory and wood carvings  .
The mausoleum has one of the largest brick domes in Central Asia . The dome for Muslims was a symbol of unity and hospitality. That is why special attention was paid to the size and appearance of the dome.
The complex of palaces and temples is one of the largest erected in the Timurids era. Above the entrance to the building there is a well-preserved inscription that says: “This holy place was erected at the behest of the ruler, beloved by Allah, Emir Timur Guragan ... - may Allah prolong his command for centuries!”
The bricks used in the construction were brought from the ancient city of Sairam by order of Amir Timur. The tombstone of the saint was brought from Tabriz. [five]
In terms of scale, the mausoleum of Ahmed Yasavi is equal to the Bibi-Khanym mosque in Samarkand ( Uzbekistan ).
The mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi consists of eight rooms of various nature, which are grouped around the central, the largest hall in the complex for the tai kazan ( Kaz.Kazandyқ ): the mausoleum, mosque, large and small palace halls ( kaz. Aқsaray ), a library ( kaz. ) and an economic complex, which includes a well ( kaz. құdyқkhan ), a dining room ( kaz. askhan ), residential and other premises.
In the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasaui, two doors have been preserved since the 14th century. This is the door of the central hall of Zhamagathana (Kazandyk), which calls “Kakpa” (“Gate”) and the door of the tomb “Kapsyrma” (“Bracket”).
A two-wing door leading to Zhamagathana (Kazandyk), “Kakpa” (dimensions 3.7x2.1 m) is located in the depth of the portal of the Southern facade. This is the central front door.
The ornamentation on the outside of the door is divided into three parts, each of them is separated from each other by a patterned (embossed) belt.
Translations of the inscription on the door:
“Glory to Allah Almighty for everything [sent]! Praise be to Allah Almighty for everything [sent]! ”
"The gate of saints is the source of happiness, love of saints is the key to happiness!"
“Thy servant of the [holy] threshold, be in abundance!”
In the middle of the door on four-cornered bronze plates, two bronze rings-chalcis-knocking devices are embedded. An inscription in Persian and Arabic is engraved on the edge of the rings and at the top of the plate.
“The Prophet may peace be upon him! He said:“ This world is fleeting, turning it into obedience to God! ”
“Our goal is the patterns [of life] that will remain after us, for I do not see being eternal.
Maybe someone is the lord of the heart with tenderness,
One day he will pray for [this] poor man. ”
Saadi, the poem "Gulista."
“In the year seven hundred and ninety-ninth (1396-97), made (her) a slave weak and asking (forgiveness from God) Izz ad-din ibn Taj ad-din al-Isagi. May this door be for joy and always bringing benefit, open to friends, and closed to enemies! ”
Kazandyk - a room for Thai cauldron. This front building of the complex, square in plan with sides equal to 18.2 m, is covered with the largest spherical conic dome with a single shell preserved in Central Asia . Along the axes of the walls of the room are high lancet niches decorated with ganch stalactites . The proportions of the room, its height (39 m), the whiteness of the walls in dim lighting create an atmosphere of peace, awe and solemnity.
The tomb ( kaz. Kabirkhan ) of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi is a square (7.5x7.5) domed room with shallow but wide, half the length of each wall, arched niches. In the center of the room is a tombstone (3.25x2x2.2 m), lined with pale green ornaments . Pilgrims , as a rule, were not allowed here. They prayed at the entrance to the tomb.
The Small Mosque (a place for prayers) is one of the most interesting premises of the complex for design and decoration. Cruciform in plan, it is crowned with a completely unusual dome, as if carved from nacre and mounted on a relatively high drum, in which there are light openings.
Small and large palaces
The palaces, large and small, are double-lighted halls . In the XVI - XVIII centuries , when the residence of the Kazakh khans of the Senior and Middle Zhuzes was located in the city of Turkestan, they were used as palace rooms.
The Small Palace is a room where the most respected people were buried for six hundred years. There are 43 tombstones in total. The oldest burial place of 1431, the most recent - 1917.
The Grand Palace - this unique palace building was originally intended to gather dervishes, meetings of religious communities. The hall held diplomatic receptions, military negotiations, meetings of the feudal nobility. There is a khan's chair and a scepter .
At the entrance to the premises of the large palace, you can see the tombstone of the famous Kazakh ruler Abylay Khan , who died in 1781 .
The library ( Kaz. Kitapkhan ) adjoins the main hall from the west, as if balancing in plan a small palace adjoining from the east. This room housed a library of ancient manuscript books, prints. Books were also written here and paperwork was conducted.
Dining room ( kaz. Askhana ), the name of the hall is associated with the preparation of a special ritual food for pilgrims . Food was prepared during the day; food was prepared from wheat and lamb . Here preserved ancient stoves, boiler , wooden utensils .
Well ( kaz. Құdyқkhan ) - a room with a well ( kaz. Құdyқ ), which, according to one version, was dug during the construction of the complex to provide builders with water; according to another version - during the resistance of the urban population to the Dzungars who invaded the Kazakh Khanate in the 18th century. The water from this well was considered sacred, it was filled with Thai cauldrons and distributed to pilgrims during Muslim holidays.
- One of the main attractions of this mausoleum is Thai cauldron - the largest water bowl throughout the eastern Muslim world  . According to legend, it was cast from an alloy of seven metals in the village of Karnak , 25 kilometers from the city of Turkestan. The surface of taikazan is decorated with three belts of relief inscriptions on the background of floral ornaments. The upper one says that this cauldron for water is a gift from Timur to the building erected in memory of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi. In the middle of the word: “Be blessed,” the date of making the cauldron is May 25, 1399 and the name of the master is Abdulgaziz ibn Sharafutdin from Tabriz . The lower one says: "Kingdom to Allah." The handles of the boiler are in the form of lotus flowers and alternate with round protrusions. The volume of the cauldron is 3000 liters, weight - 2 tons, diameter - 2.2 meters, and a height of 1.58 meters. Since 1934, this bowl was exhibited in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg, Russia ) at the State Hermitage . In 1988, the tai cauldron was returned to the mausoleum.
- Lamps were installed in the Kazandyk premises, some of them are still stored here, and two of them are stored in the Louvre and the Hermitage. Among them, the greatest artistic value is the monumental bronze lamp - also a gift from Timur. It is decorated with floral ornaments, engraved inscriptions and inlaid with silver and gold . The inscriptions tell the name of the master - Izuddin ibn Tajundin and the year of manufacture - 1397 .
- The flagpole, established by order of Tamerlane, has a length of 4 meters, made of ivory. The flag that was attached there was lost, but from the surviving photographs in the records of the mausoleum, we can conclude that the color of the flag was green (“Muslim Color”).
Legends associated with the mausoleum
- According to legend, by order of Tamerlane over the grave of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, the construction of a mosque ( 1338 - 1405 ) began. All attempts to build walls failed, a strong storm blew them away, according to another version, the appearance of a green bull that destroyed everything. The saint Timur, who appeared in a dream, said that first it is necessary to build a mausoleum over the grave of St. Arystan-Bab, and then over the grave of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi. Timur did so. Therefore, the pilgrims first visit the mausoleum of Arystan-Bab , and then the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi  .
Bank of Russia coin issued in memory of the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi in Turkestan (obverse)
Bank of Russia coin reverse
Silver coin of the Republic of Kazakhstan - “Famous Mosques of the World” Series - 100 tenge
Gold coin of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Ancient Turkestan. Obverse. 100 tenge. 999 Gold
On Tenge Banknotes
USSR stamp. Monuments of history. Turkestan. Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, 1989
The skin of Ahmet Yassaui Mazars at the postal block of Kazakhstan, 1996
Thai cauldron on a commemorative postage stamp of Kazakhstan dedicated to the 1500th anniversary of Turkestan
An old drawing of the city of Turkestan, the photo was first published in 1879 .
Wall of a medieval city citadel (reconstruction). In the background is Khanaka Ahmed Yasawi.
Mausoleum view from the east side.
The mausoleum is a view from the south side, in the foreground is the mausoleum of Rabigi Sultan run.
The north side of the mausoleum, the dome over the grave of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi.
Shildehan - a medieval cult Sufi building. Located 22 m north-west of the khanaki Ahmed Yasawi.
The mausoleum of Rabigi Sultan Begim, on the back there is a roof over the "Big Khilvet", a medieval Sufi cult underground structure, currently turned into a museum.
Mausoleum of Yessimhan. It is located 12 m south of the western minaret of the khanaki Ahmed Yasawi.
Museum "Oriental Bath", a reconstructed building of the XVI-XVIII centuries. Located 150 m south of Hanaki Ahmed Yasawi
- Azret Sultan (reserve-museum)
- ↑ Hikes of V.V. Vereshchagin
- ↑ Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yassawi
- ↑ Akhmadullin V. A. The activities of the Soviet state and the spiritual administrations of Muslims on the organization of pilgrimage (1944-1965): an analysis of historical experience and significance for modernity. - M .: Islamic Book, 2016 .-- S. 104.
- ↑ South Kazakhstan Region: Mausoleum of Khoja Akhmet Yassaui, XIV century
- ↑ History of Kazakhstan in Persian sources. T.5. Almaty: Dyke-Press, 2007, p. 87
- ↑ Southern Kazakhstan, the ancient city of Turkestan.
- ↑ South Kazakhstan Region: Mausoleum of Khoja Akhmet Yassaui, XIV century
|UNESCO World Heritage Site , Object No. 1103|
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