Hyperhydration ( eng. Hyperhydratation ; hyper- + hydration; syn. Hyperhydria , water poisoning ) - excessive water content in the body or its individual parts. It is a form of violation of water- salt metabolism.
Clinically, patients have edema on the face, legs, ascites , pulmonary edema and brain edema .
Water in the human body is contained both in the cell and in the extracellular sector (intravascular, interstitial and transcellular part of it), which accounts for 30% of its total amount.
In renal failure, hyperhydration is primarily associated with a violation of the composition and volume of the extracellular fluid sector. In turn, this affects the intracellular sector, changing tissue metabolism towards catabolic processes with the breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The biologically active substances released in this process, which were previously in a bound state inside the cell, enter the extracellular sector, causing serious humoral shifts.
If the patient drinks more than three liters of water within an hour, a sharp development of uremic intoxication occurs, patients often die in such situations from hypokalemia , pulmonary edema and cerebral edema .
Hyperhydration along with the pathogenetic treatment of the disease that caused it requires appropriate dehydration therapy.
Water poisoning is accompanied by symptoms such as: a drop in body temperature, salivation, nausea, vomiting, impaired coordination of movements, cramps, muscle weakness, headache. (You can also notice symptoms similar to normal poisoning.) 
Types of Hyperhydration
The following types of hyperhydration:
- Extracellular hyperhydration (h. Extracellularis) - all extracellular space or only interstitial tissue undergoes hyperhydration. This type of hyperhydration is usually associated with a delay in the human body electrolytes.
- Cellular hyperhydration (h. Cellularis) or intracellular edema - characterized by the accumulation of water in the cells. This type of hyperhydration develops when an excessive amount of water or hypotonic solutions is introduced into the body.
- General hyperhydration (h. Communis) or “water poisoning” or “water intoxication” - the whole organism undergoes hyperhydration. As a rule, this is hypoosmotic hyperhydration. This type of hyperhydration is observed with increased intake of water in the body in combination with its insufficient release.
- Hyperosmotic or hyperosmolar hyperhydration (h. Hyperosmotica) - characterized by increased osmotic pressure of liquids. This type of hyperhydration, for example, is observed with forced drinking of sea water .
- Hypoosmotic or hypoosmolar hyperhydration (h. Hypoosmotica) - characterized by reduced osmotic pressure of liquids. This type of hyperhydration is observed with a predominance of water in the body over its release.
- Normosmotic (h. Normoosmotica) or isotonic hyperhydration (h. Isotonica) - characterized by normal osmotic pressure of liquids. This type of hyperhydration is observed with massive isotonic infusions and some types of edema.
- Drinking torture
- Dragomilov A.D. biology. - A textbook on biology of the 8th grade. - Ventana Graf, 2014 .-- S. 168-169. - 285 p.
- Types of hyperhydration // Article of the certified endoscopy center "Endos".
- Pathophysiology of water-salt metabolism; Hyperhydration of the body and edema;
- Violation of water-salt metabolism