Adam Chernyakov ( Polish: Adam Czerniaków ( 1880 , Warsaw , Russian Empire - July 23, 1942 , Warsaw ghetto ) - Polish engineer of Jewish origin, senator of Poland in the 1930s. In 1939-1942 he headed the Judenrat of the Warsaw ghetto . suicide, after learning that the Nazis are planning mass deportation of Jews from the ghetto to Treblinka camp .
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||Warsaw , Russian Empire|
|Date of death|
|Place of death||Warsaw , Governor General , Third Reich|
He studied at a vocational school of the Jewish community of Warsaw. In 1927 - 1934 - member of the Warsaw Municipal Council, at the same time since 1931 - senator of Poland. On October 4, 1939 , a few days after the Nazi occupation of Warsaw, he headed the Judenrat (the Warsaw ghetto self-government body responsible for executing the orders of the occupation administration on its territory).
In June 1942 , the Judenrat received an order from the occupation authorities to ensure the deportation of Jews (at least 6,000 people a day). Realizing what this could lead to, Chernyakov unsuccessfully tried to get the Nazis the right to leave at least orphans in the ghetto (including from the orphanage of Dr. Korchak ). When his attempts were unsuccessful, he accepted potassium cyanide.
Chernyakov kept a diary from September 6, 1939 until the last day of his life, which was published in 1979 in an English translation. He was buried in the Jewish cemetery in Warsaw on the street. Okopova.
In the cinema
|From the book of A. Kardash "Judenrat" :|
“Chernyakov is a squirrel in a wheel of compromise. The “subman” of the Germans is the master in the ghetto ... Food is from him, from Judenrat, work is from him, life and death are from him. And the Germans did not dare to argue, do not anger the beast. Let's move ... ... Everything was unsteady, depending on the whim of the invaders, unreliable: the streets remained dirty, five percent of the population worked, epidemics mowed people, homeless people staggered along the bridges ... But he managed to give out 229 calories a day on food cards per capita instead of the Germans laid one hundred eighty-four, but someone still recovered from typhoid! He was a strong man, he could endure a grovel before the Germans, convulsions of humiliation, spitting and scuffle to the blood, he could be cunning, lying, he was ready to lick the Gestapo’s boot, just to prevent this boot from trampling the ghetto. ... He hated [underground resistance fighters]. Not only because they carried the ghetto into the abyss. He also hated them for the purity of their intransigence, for the recklessness of youthful dashing <...> he controlled longing for his son, unfolding it in thoughts of youth, of Jews, of their mythical fate, and his love for his son extended to his dying and imperishable people, he loved and saved him, just as he loved and saved these fools, blindly spinning under the wheels of a Hitler machine; and loving and saving, he was tearing: - They will destroy everyone! Our strength is in patience! The Germans will pass us on like fleas! ”
- In the film by Andrzej Wajda “Korczak”, Adam Chernyakov, whose role was played by Alexander Bardini , was portrayed as a tragic figure in politics. The head of the Judenrat is trying to do everything possible to stop the mass deportations of Jews to the concentration camp of Treblinka and is subjected to humiliation and physical beatings by the Nazis. Unable to convince the occupation authorities to leave at least orphans in the ghetto, Chernyakov commits suicide.
- In 2001 , a film was shot about the uprising of the Warsaw ghetto Uprising , where actor Donald Sutherland played the role of Chernyakov.
- In the documentary "Unfinished Film", director Yael Khersonsky illustrates fragments from the diaries of Adam Chernyakov with newsreels shot by the Germans in the Warsaw Ghetto in the spring of 1942. In the chronicle you can see Chernyakov himself.
- Raul Hilberg, The Warsaw Diary of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude to Doom , Ivan R. Dee, Publisher, 1999, ISBN 1566632307 .