Sankhya , samkhya ( Skt. संख्या , saṃkhyā IAST - "enumeration") - the philosophy of Indian dualism , founded by Kapila . There are two principles in the world: prakriti (matter) and purusha (spirit). The goal of the Sankhya philosophy is to distract the spirit from matter.
The word “sankhya” is based on the root khya (ख्य), which means “it is called” as a verb; passive form - “known”, “named”, noun - “look”, “thought”, “idea”. With the prefix sam (“together”), the root forms the verb name sankhyā - “number”, “count”, which means “calculus”.
Sankhyaik is the one who calculus.
Sankhya in its development has gone through four periods:
- Sankhya Kapila (7th – 6th centuries BC) affirmed both relative monotheism and absolute monism , the main points coming from the Vedas and the Upanishads .
- Theistic Sankhya of the Mahabharata , Bhagavad-gita , Puran . A distinction was made between Prakriti and Purusha , who acted as the “Knower”. Complete liberation of the soul is achieved through knowledge of the true nature of Prakriti and Purusha, merging with Ishvara . Leading representatives of this period: Asuri and Panchashikha .
- The atheistic Sankhya of the Buddhist period , which became such under its influence. Using logic, the Sankhya tried to substantiate the reality of the “I” before the attacks of Buddhism and came to the logical conclusion that Ishvara was impossible. Ishvarakrishna : " Sankhya-karika ."
- Sankhya Vijnanabhishnu (VII century). Return to theistic sankhya. However, although this direction is described in encyclopedias, it seems that it has not received a real distribution.
EA Torchinov distinguishes two types of sankhya: epic and classical.  The epic sankhya is reflected in the philosophical texts of the Mahabharata (primarily in the Bhagavad-gita). Classical Sankhya is a philosophical system created by Ishwarakrishna in the first centuries of n. e.
The source of reliable knowledge are three pramanas (measure):
- pratyaksha ( pratyakṣa IAST - present before the eyes, visible, perceived, immediate) - direct perception when the senses come into contact with objects  ;
- two types of perception:
- nirvikalpa (accepting without a doubt) - vague perception, simple impression, not containing knowledge of the object;
- savikalpa (with doubt and change) - a certain perception, processed and differentiated impression, leading to knowledge;
- anumana (conclusion) - a logical conclusion;
- sabda is oral evidence.
The question “who knows” is very confused in the theory of knowledge of sankhya.
The starting point of the metaphysics of Sankhya, and especially its doctrine of matter, is the doctrine of the presence of an effect in cause; the effect and cause are understood as two states (revealed and undetected) of the same substance. This leads to the search for the root cause, not necessarily connected with God, and to the theory of evolution-involution in the explanation of the world.
Ten Essential Sankhya Doctrines
The ten main points of the Sankhya philosophy are listed in the Tattva-samasa and are based on the Sankhya-karika of Ishvarakrishna in which their rationale is given.
- The Existence of Purusha and Pradhana
- Pradhana's Unity
- The objectivity of Pradhana and its manifestations
- Destiny of Pradhana and its manifestations
- The Otherness of Purusha
- The inaction of Purusha
- The union of Pradhana and Purusha
- Separation of Pradhana and Purusha
- The Plurality of Purusha
- Special functioning of the body
Sankhya, based on the presence of subjective-object relations in a person’s cognitive practice, comes to the conclusion that there are two different realities independent from each other - purusha and prakriti. Prakriti acts as the unconscious source of the world of objects, and purusha is an unobjective consciousness that cognizes Prakriti.
Purusha is a transcendental Self or pure consciousness, it is an absolute, beginningless, unchanging, unknowable reality. Purusha not only does not have a reason for existence, but also does not act as the cause of something. Unlike Advaita Vedanta and Purva-mimamsa, Sankhya teaches about the multiplicity of Purushas.
Prakriti is the causeless root cause of all objects in the world, devoid of consciousness. Since this is the first principle ( tattva ) of the Universe, it is called Pradhana (“main”, “most important”). Prakriti is independent and active, consists of three gunas :
- sattva - the basis of the mind, characterized by subtlety, lightness, light and joy;
- rajas - the basis of energy, characterized by activity, excitement and suffering;
- tamas is the basis of inertia, characterized by rudeness, apathy, amorphousness and darkness.
All physical phenomena are considered as manifestations of the evolution of Prakriti.
When the gunas are in a state of equilibrium ( samyavastha ), then there is no development, but under the influence of purusha there is an imbalance of the gunas, which begin to form various combinations, which creates the world of objects.
The first manifestation is the Mahat (Great), or buddhi , pure potency, in which there are still no subject-object relations.
Then Akhankara , or individualization, arises in it, there is already a difference between the subject and the object.
Depending on the predominance of one of the three gunas of Akhankara, there are three types: vaikarik , or sattvika; taijasa , or rajasa , bhutada , or tamasa .
Eleven organs arise from sattvika: the mind ( manas ), five organs of perception ( jnanendriya ), five organs of action ( carmendria ).
From tamas - five subtle elements ( tanmatra ).
Rajasa provides sattvik and tamas with the necessary energy to form their products.
Five organs of perception : hearing, touch, sight, taste, smell.
Five organs of action: arms, legs, speech, organ of excretion, organ of reproduction.
Five subtle elements: akasha (ether), vayu (air), teja (light), apa (liquid), prithvi (solid).
- Sankhya yoga
- Popular Hindu dictionary. EA Torchinov “Usually distinguish between epic and classical sankhya. The first of them was reflected in the philosophical texts of the Indian epic Mahabharata (primarily in the Bhagavad Gita). The second - is a detailed philosophical system created by Ishvarakrishna in the first centuries of n. e. The main difference between these two kinds of sankhya. consists in the fact that the epic sankhya is monistic and theistic (sesvaravada), considering matter (prakriti) as a principle derived from the divine Absolute, and matter in its subtle form forms creative energy, or the power of God (yogamaya; maya), while classical Sankhya is dualistic and non -istic (nirishvaravada): spirit (purusha) and matter (prakriti) are considered in it as completely independent and independent substances, and the existence of a single absolute (both in personal and impersonal form) is denied ”
- Lysenko V.G. the term "Pratyaksha" // New philosophical encyclopedia in 4 volumes . - 2000.