Nelkan is a village in the Ayano-May district of the Khabarovsk Territory , 200 km from the district center of Ayan . The organizational center of the ridge part of the Ayano-May district, the terminal point of navigation along the May River. The national production and fishing facilities Olenevod, Nelkanskoye, One, the Amur and Coastal artisanal artillery divisions , car winters to artel sections on Conder , Ulakhan, etc., the airport. The highway to Ayang is under construction. Liaison office, district hospital, high school, preschool, library, cultural center, village administration. Cellular communication works ( MegaFon ).
|Subject of the federation||Khabarovsk region|
|Municipal District||Ayano May|
|The head of administration||Petukhova Natalya Vasilievna (2009) |
|History and Geography|
|Center height||300 m|
|Timezone||UTC + 10|
|Population||↘ 700  people ( 2019 )|
|Nationalities||Evenki , Russian|
|Telephone code||+7 42147|
The population according to 2019 is 700  .
The name "Nelkan" has Evenki roots - "nel" means an arrow or place from the confluence of two rivers. So it is in fact: the village is located near the mouth of the Chuya River, which flows into the Maya River. The suffix "kan" means "one who lives here," that is, belonging to a given area.
There is exact confirmation when and by whom the Nelkan tract was founded. In 1816, a terrible epidemic of anthrax occurred in Yakutia. The Yakuts lost almost all their horses, the supply of food to remote areas stopped, and mass hunger strikes of the nomadic Tungus began. It was then that the decision was made to open universally bakery stores to support local people in difficult times. By order of the Yakutsk regional administration, serving Cossacks Prokopiy Novgorodov and Grigory Tsipandin were sent to the venue for the fairs of the Tungus in 1818 to organize a bread store. According to the order from the Yakut regional administration to the supervisor of the Nelkan store, “the May Tungus, the exiles who had fled from Okhotsk, were devastated and went on a hunger strike. Wanting to provide benefits to the Tungus ruined by the victims, I order you to send those Tungus, the Komi, according to your closest ID and the Clan Directorate, most of all suffer a hunger strike from ruin, send them 50 pounds of provisions at the official price for food from Nelcan shops, sharing each amount it will be accounted for only under the circular of their and the patrimonial management of the guarantee, and to collect money for it from them next year. The consequences of this in detail to me to inform ”  .
On August 1, 1818, the first record was made about the opening of a bread store in the Nelkan tract (on the day of the festival to the All-Merciful Savior and the Most Holy Theotokos, "Depreciation of the Honest Trees of the Life-giving Cross of the Lord"). Since then, for a single day, life in this village has not stopped. The essence of the bakery store did not change until 1848, when it passed into the jurisdiction of the Russian-American company and until 1867 (the time the RAC closed) the store belonged to the company.
In 1851, the Amgino-Ayan tract became an official postal service, and Nelkan became one of its stations. That is, the status of Nelkan is defined as state and the concern for his life should lie on the shoulders of officials. Officials shifted these concerns onto the shoulders of the front-line population. The first settlers were Old Believer peasants from Transbaikalia (mostly scribes), they settled in the Ust-Mai region , and the peasants Bushkova, Berezovsky, Protodyakonov, and Suknev arrived in Nelkan. In 1852, fundraising began for the construction of the chapel. Ten years later, in 1862 it was built, and in 1864 it was consecrated by the Archbishop of Kamchatka and the Aleutian Innocent.
The most difficult time in the history of Nelkan was the years of the change of centuries and the first decades of the 20th century. After the abolition of the Russian-American company, there were 7 yards in Nelkan, in which only 18 people lived. Life began to boil with the beginning of the “tea road”, when Chinese tea was delivered from China to Yakutsk, and from there to Irkutsk - then the population grew significantly here. From Russian America and Japan, tiled and long tea began to be delivered by sea to Ayan. In the year of tea, up to 100 thousand boxes were transported, for which the tract got the name - tea. By the beginning of the summer navigation, up to 200 working Yakuts gathered in Nelkan, and even winter workers — Evenki-mushers — joined the tea business. The life of the village was, as they say, at its peak. Up to the point that they needed their own, local competent people, and for this purpose, in 1902 a parish school was opened. Her first teacher was the priest of the Nelcan Annunciation Church, Father Vasily Maltsev. Subsequently, teachers arrived at the school - in fact, from this time on, the beginning of the formation of the educational system in the village of Nelkan can be considered.
With the advent of new power in Nelkan, the most hectic time began - firstly, Nelkan belonged to the Yakutsk region, the Yakutsk district, and subsequently to the Yakut ASSR since 1914. In 1920, Nelkan separated from the Aldan-Maysky ulus and, as an independent ulus, remained part of the Yakut ASSR. In 1922, the Far Eastern Region was formed, the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic did not enter there, while the port of Ayan was assigned to the territory of the Far East and entered the Kamchatka province. The issue of administrative-territorial division in those years was so acute and intricate in the conflicts of interethnic, economic, and political problems that this served to create a situation of permanent revolutionary actions. For ten years, the local authorities in Nelkan were represented by ulus revolutionary committees, the first chairman of the UlRevkom was Nikolai Bushkov, who was executed by counterrevolutionaries in 1922.
During the Tunguska Uprising in May 1924, the rebels occupied Nelkan, which became the base of the rebels. It housed a group of up to 300 armed men.
Nelkan, by virtue of his geographical position, was in the thick of those events about which, such as Pepelyaev’s campaign , much is known; about others, such as the speech of Artemyev and Galibarov a little smaller, even more confused today are the fighting of the Vasin detachment and the death of the Chekists in 1927 in Nelkan   , the monument of which stands in the center of the village.
On December 10, 1930, the Ayano-May district was formed as part of the national Okhotsk Evensk district of the Far East, Nelkan became part of the national district in the Ayano-May district , but as an administrative-territorial unit belonged to the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic until 1932.
The climate is sharply continental . Winter is extremely harsh and with little snow. Summer is short. Therefore, permafrost is developed.
|Climate of Nelkan (norm 1981-2010)|
|Average temperature, ° C||−34.6||−28.4||−16.7||−3||6.9||15,2||17.5||14.2||6.4||−5.7||−23.3||−34.1||−7.1|
|Precipitation rate, mm||14||9||eight||sixteen||33||41||66||61||50||33||22||14||367|
|Source: FSBI "VNIIGMI-WDC"|
|2002 ||2010 ||2011 ||2012 ||2013 ||2014 ||2015 |
|1203||↘ 843||↘ 841||↘ 800||↘ 779||↘ 763||↘ 743|
|2016 ||2017 ||2018 ||2019 |
|↘ 734||↘ 729||↘ 719||↘ 700|
- Nelcan Annunciation Church - built in 1914 according to the project of Konstantin Ton .
- Monument to the Chekists of the 2nd Far Eastern Cavalry Regiment who died in December 1927 during the liberation of Nelcan. "
- Map sheet O-53-XXIII . Scale: 1: 200 000. Indicate the date of issue / condition of the area .
- Head of the village of Nelkan
- Population of the Khabarovsk Territory by municipalities as of January 1, 2019
- fund No. 12, case No. 39, state national archive of the Republic of Sakha ( Yakutia )
- Nikolai SYSOYEV. TRADITIONS: "Ice campaign" of the Far Eastern security officers . Brother, December 2000 . Date of treatment October 17, 2015.
- Nikolai SYSOYEV. STEP IN IMMORTALITY . Red star of March 3, 2009 . Date of treatment October 17, 2015.
- 2002 All-Russian Census Data: Table No. 02c. Population and prevailing nationality for each rural locality. M .: Federal State Statistics Service, 2004
- 2010 All-Russian Population Census. 13. The population of urban districts, municipalities, urban and rural settlements, urban settlements, rural settlements of the Khabarovsk Territory . Date of treatment April 5, 2016. Archived April 5, 2016.
- Estimation of the resident population of the Khabarovsk Territory at the beginning of 2011 by municipalities . Date of treatment March 26, 2014. Archived March 26, 2014.
- Population estimate by municipalities at the beginning of 2012 . Date of treatment April 3, 2015. Archived April 3, 2015.
- The population of the Russian Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2013. - M.: Federal State Statistics Service of Rosstat, 2013. - 528 p. (Table 33. The population of urban districts, municipalities, urban and rural settlements, urban settlements, rural settlements) . Date of treatment November 16, 2013. Archived November 16, 2013.
- Table 33. The population of the Russian Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2014 . Date of treatment August 2, 2014. Archived on August 2, 2014.
- The population of the Russian Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2015 . Date of treatment August 6, 2015. Archived on August 6, 2015.
- Population of the Russian Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2016
- The population of the Russian Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2017 (July 31, 2017). Date of treatment July 31, 2017. Archived July 31, 2017.
- The population of the Russian Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2018 . Date of treatment July 25, 2018. Archived July 26, 2018.