The demarcation of the Russian-Chinese border took place in 2005 . As a result of the interstate border in the center of the Amur River, China received a number of territories with a total area of 337 km² - a plot of land in the vicinity of Bolshoi Island (the upper reaches of the Argun River in the Chita Region ) and two plots in the region of the Tarabar and Bolshoi Ussuriysky Islands at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers. The main part of these territories was the western tip of the Bolshoi Ussuri Island on the Amur River opposite the mouth of the Ussuri River. The island has an area of 327 to 350 km² depending on the season.
On October 14, 2004, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Chinese President Hu Jintao signed an addendum to the agreement on the Russian-Chinese state border , according to which the transfer took place.
On May 20, 2005, the State Duma of the 4th convocation ratified an additional agreement (307 deputies supported, 80 against, two abstained). On May 25, the agreement was approved by the Federation Council (157 senators supported, against - two, without abstentions).
In 1689, the Nerchinsk Treaty was concluded when Russia recognized the rights of China to land on the right bank of the Amur and in Primorye (Outer Manchuria ).
In the middle of the XIX century, Russia annexed 165.9 thousand square kilometers of Primorye, which were jointly managed  . The Qing Empire was left without access to the Sea of Japan  . These changes were enshrined in the Tianjin Treaty of June 1, 1858 and the Beijing Treaty of November 2, 1860  .
In the first quarter of the 20th century, both signatory states of previous agreements ceased to exist: the Qing Empire and the Russian Empire. In the fall of 1911, the Chinese provinces began to take off from the Manchu Qing Empire in turn, as a result of which the Republic of China was formed in 1912, which actually broke up in 1916 and reunited only in 1927 after the so-called. Northern campaign . Outer Mongolia and Manchuria, bordering Russia, i.e. countries outside of China itself, formerly part of the empire, began a semi-independent existence. Part of Mongolia ( Tuva ) became a Russian protectorate (the Republic of Tannu-Tuva since 1921), the rest of its territory was recognized as an independent state, and since 1924 it became a socialist Mongolian people's republic , which maintains close ties with the USSR. Manchuria, until 1928, existed under the leadership of Zhang Zolin practically independently of the Republic of China.
On September 20, 1924, a new border agreement was concluded between the USSR and the government of the three autonomous eastern provinces of the Republic of China (instead of the agreement between China and the Tsar of Russia, which, like other agreements with the tsarist government, was canceled earlier). According to this agreement (Article 3), the parties agreed to re-mark the border, but until then adhere to the old borders. 
During the Japanese occupation of China, the USSR took control of many islands on the Chinese side of the fairway on the Amur and Ussuri  .
The problem of the disputed islands of Tarabarov and Bolshoi Ussuriysk arose in 1964, when a new draft agreement on the border was developed, but the document was not signed  .
In 1991, USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev signed an agreement according to which the border passed in the middle of the Amur channel.
The transfer of the islands caused a mixed reaction in Russia. The positive result was the improvement of relations with China, the length of the border with which is more than 4300 km, and the removal of the potential threat of a territorial conflict in the future. On the other hand, a number of politicians regarded the transfer of Russian territory as a weakening of Russia's position. The strategic position of the islands and the availability of natural resources on them were also indicated.
The governor of the Chita region Ravil Geniatulin positively assessed the agreement:
“Disagreements on issues related to disputed territories all the time can be a stumbling block in bilateral relations. At present, we have no territorial claims against each other, and this will serve as a solid foundation for further cooperation. In addition, do not forget that the water main and water intake remained on our side, and this is a big plus. I am sure that our descendants in the future will appreciate what we did in 2005 ”  .
The chairman of the Russian part of the Russian-Chinese committee of friendship, peace and development, Leonid Drachevsky, said that the transfer of the islands would settle "the last moment overshadowing relations between Russia and China"  . According to Natalya Narochnitskaya , deputy chairman of the State Duma’s Committee on Foreign Affairs, "the concession to the territory is very small, and the importance of strategic relations with China is obvious."
The Chairman of the State Duma Committee on International Affairs Konstantin Kosachev noted that the signing of the agreement had two alternatives: to demand from China all disputed territories or to leave the situation unchanged and with a lack of prospects to agree in the foreseeable future (which, in his opinion, is extremely dangerous for Russia, so how the risk of conflict erupts). The Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov emphasized that this was not a question of territorial concessions: the islands were legally and in the international legal sense did not belong to anyone , and when the border agreement between the USSR and China was concluded in 1991, the three islands were also not determined.
Against the agreement were representatives of the Communist Party . In particular, Viktor Ilyukhin said: “They give 337 square kilometers! This is a very large territory, on it there are summer cottages of Russian citizens, about which no one says anything. ” The Khabarovsk Regional Committee of the Communist Party organized a rally against the transfer of the islands. [five]
- Chinese in Siberia
- Conflict on the CER
- Border conflict at Lake Zhalanashkol
- Border Conflict on Damansky Island
- Russian-Chinese relations
- Russia went to China
- Collective of authors. Document No. 55, Article 3 // Soviet-Chinese Relations 1917-1957 . - Ripol Classic.
- Chita governor is convinced of the correct transfer of the islands to China // REGNUM , May 30, 2005
- Leonid Drachevsky: “Transferring the islands to China will remove the last controversial moment in our relations” // REGNUM , May 25, 2005
- In Khabarovsk , the struggle continues against the transfer of the islands to China // REGNUM , November 3, 2004
- Supplementary Agreement between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China on the Russian-Chinese State Border on its Eastern Part of October 14, 2004.
- Federal Law of the Russian Federation of May 31, 2005 N 52-ФЗ “ On Ratification of the Supplementary Agreement between the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China on the Russian-Chinese State Border on its Eastern Part ”