Ironia (from other Greek ε -ρωνεία " pretense ") is a satirical device in which the true meaning is hidden or contradicts (contrasts) with the explicit meaning .
The irony should create the feeling that the subject of discussion is not what it seems. The irony can be expressed in writing, but then the words are quoted.
Shapes of Irony
- Direct irony is a satirical way to belittle, give a negative character to the described phenomenon.
- Anti -irony is the opposite of direct irony and makes the object of anti-irony underestimated.
- Self -irony is an irony directed at one's own person. In self-irony and anti-irony, negative statements can imply a reverse (positive) subtext. Example: "Where are we, fools, to drink tea."
- Socratic irony is a form of self-irony, constructed in such a way that the person to whom it is addressed, as it were, comes to logical conclusions and finds the hidden meaning of the ironic statement, following the premises of the “not knowing the truth” subject .
- An ironic worldview is a state of mind that allows you to not take on faith the widespread assertions and stereotypes , and not take too seriously the various “generally accepted values”.
- Postirony is a term used to indicate a state where sincerity becomes difficult to distinguish from irony.
According to the poetess Yunna Moritz , “with irony and self-irony in Russian culture , literature has always been different, we have in this sense all Russian classics are simply brilliant”  . According to David Remnick , the traditional culture in Moscow is based on fatalism and irony  .
- Irony / Mikhailov Al. B. // Plasma Radiation - Islamic Salvation Front. - M .: Big Russian Encyclopedia, 2008. - P. 705. - ( Big Russian Encyclopedia : [in 35 vols.] / Ch. Ed. Yu. S. Osipov ; 2004—2017, vol. 11). - ISBN 978-5-85270-342-2 .
- Osinovskaya I.A.Ironical pilgrimage. The ironic as a satyr and god // Irony and Eros. Poetics of the figurative field. - M.: 2007, p. 84-104.