Pneumoconiosis ( lat. Pneumon - lungs and konia - dust) is a group of lung diseases (irreversible and incurable)  caused by prolonged inhalation of industrial dust and characterized by the development of a fibrous process in them; relate to occupational diseases. They are found among workers in the mining, coal  , machine-building and some other industries. Depending on the composition of the inhaled dust, several types of pneumoconiosis are distinguished:
- silicosis caused by inhalation of dust containing a large amount of silicon dioxide;
- silicates (from silicate dust);
- asbestosis - from asbestos dust;
- talcosis - from talc dust;
- anthracosis ( dr.Greek . anthrax - coal) - from coal dust;
- siderosis ( dr. Greek. sideros - iron) - from dust of iron;
- silicoanthracosis - from mixed dust of silicon dioxide and coal , byssinosis, bagassosis, etc.
|ICD-10||J 60. - J 65.|
|ICD-9||500 - 505|
Signs of the disease
Pneumoconiosis is a chronic disease that usually develops gradually. The course of the disease depends on working conditions (degree of dustiness of the air in the working room, dust composition), the presence of concomitant diseases (especially respiratory organs, including tuberculosis, and the cardiovascular system), and the individual sensitivity of the body. Clinical manifestations are different with different types of pneumoconiosis, although they have common signs. Depending on the severity of the fibrous process, several stages of the disease are distinguished. Initially, chest pain, dry cough are noted. In the future, there are signs of pulmonary insufficiency, which can then be joined by heart failure. Often there are changes (atrophy or hypertrophy) of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, the functions of the stomach and pancreas are disturbed, metabolic disorders occur. Complications: pneumonia, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis.
Complaints: unproductive cough , progressive shortness of breath . Cirrhosis of the lung develops, wrinkling with patches of emphysema .
The diagnosis is made taking into account the duration of the patient’s contact with industrial dust, its composition, specific working conditions, past respiratory diseases, etc.
The main treatment methods are aimed at reducing dust deposits in the lungs and removing it, inhibiting allergic tissue reactions to dust, increasing the body's immunity, improving lung ventilation, blood circulation and metabolic processes. Apply respiratory gymnastics, medical nutrition, drugs that relieve bronchospasm, cardiovascular, antibacterial drugs, oxygen treatment, vitamin therapy, in some cases, corticosteroid hormones. In the case of silicotuberculosis - treatment in a TB dispensary. Sanatorium treatment in local climatic resorts; in the non-hot season - the southern coast of Crimea, the North Caucasus, Borovoye resort, etc.
A distinctive ability of most pneumoconioses is the prolonged absence of subjective and objective clinical manifestations of the disease with gradually developing fibrosis. ... The late development of pneumoconiosis ... perhaps 10-20 years after the termination of work under the short-term (up to 5 years) exposure to high concentrations ... It should be noted that there are no specific treatment methods for pneumoconiosis  .
... remember that due to the lack of effective pathogenetic methods of treating pneumoconiosis, the main attention should be paid to therapeutic and preventive measures that can help reduce dust deposition in the lungs, its removal  .
To date, specific therapeutic methods for treating pneumoconiosis do not exist  .
Forms of the disease
By etiology, 6 groups of pneumoconiosis are divided:
- Silicosis - pneumoconiosis that develops by inhalation of silica dust ( SiO 2 ).
- Silikatosis - pneumoconiosis from inhalation of a dust mixture of silicates containing silicon dioxide in combination with other elements ( asbestosis , talcosis , kaolinosis , nephelinosis , cement, mica pneumoconiosis, etc.).
- Metalloconioses - pneumoconiosis caused by dust of metals : ( aluminum - aluminum , sideros - iron oxides ).
- Carboconiosis - anthracosis from inhalation of coal dust (anthracosis, graphitosis, soot pneumoconiosis, etc.).
- From mixed dust ("pneumoconiosis of electric welders and gas cutters", "pneumoconiosis of grinders").
- Pneumoconiosis due to inhalation of organic dust containing particles of vegetable (cotton, grain dust) or animal origin, microorganisms adsorbed on it and their metabolic products.
Since pneumoconiosis is incurable and irreversible , it is imperative to prevent dust inhalation. This requires a change in technology: reducing air dust, automation of technological processes and remote control , the use of efficient ventilation and air showers  and others. The transition to wet drilling helps to ensure that dust settles, and is not inhaled by workers. Preliminary (for those entering work) and periodic (for employees) physical examinations. To prevent further progression of the fibrotic process - the transfer of patients to work not related to exposure to dust. Sanitary, educational and medical measures are also important  .
In order to effectively prevent pneumoconiosis, US law requires all employers conducting underground coal mining to use a personal dust meter in February 2016 that measures the concentration of dust in real time  , which allows timely detection of excess MPCs and adequate corrective measures.
A study of the occupational morbidity of workers in various industries in the USSR and the Russian Federation showed that with the use of RPDD (in the Russian Federation) now, it is extremely rare to achieve effective prevention of occupational diseases using this “ last resort ”  .
Anthracosis in animals
Most often it occurs in horses and dogs. At the same time, the lungs acquire a diffuse or mottled aspid black or slate color. Significant deposition of coal dust causes inflammatory changes, the development of connective tissue, and lung induction. [eleven]
- Disease Ontology release 2019-05-13
- Andrew B. Cecala, Andrew D. O'Brien, Joseph Schall, Jay F. Colinet et al. Dust Control Handbook for Industrial Minerals Mining and Processing . - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. - Pittsburgh, PA; Spokane, WA: DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2012-110, 2012. - 84 p. There is a translation: Guidelines for protection against dust in mining and processing of minerals 2012 PDF Wiki
- Jay F. Colinet, James P. Rider, Jeffrey M. Listak, John A. Organiscak, and Anita L. Wolfe. Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining . - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. - Pittsburgh, PA; Spokane, WA: DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2010-110, 2010. - 312 p. There is a translation: The best ways to reduce dust in coal mines. NIOSH 2010 Wiki
- Izmerov N.F. ., Kirillov V.F. ed. Occupational health .. - Geotar media. - Moscow, 2010 .-- S. 180. - 592 p. - 2000 copies. - ISBN 978-5-9704-1593-1 .
- A.I. Arkina, N.A. Suchovey, M.G. Omelyanenko Pneumoconiosis. (e-learning-supervising training manual) higher education institution prof. Education "Ivanovo State. Medical Acad. Federal Agency for Health and Social Development", Department. faculty therapy and prof. Ivanovo's diseases: IvGMA of Roszdrav, 2009
- author-comp .: Alekseev S. V et al .; ch. ed. N.F. Measured . Russian Encyclopedia of Occupational Medicine . - Grew up. Acad. honey. sciences. - Moscow: Medicine, 2005 .-- S. 349. - 653 p. - ISBN 5-225-04054-3 .
- NIOSH Report on the Development and Testing of an Air Shower to Protect Miners from Dust
- Coal Mine Dust Exposures and Associated Health Outcomes. A Review of Information Published Since 1995 Translation
- Jon C. Volkwein, Robert P. Vinson, Steven J. Page, Linda J. McWilliams, Gerald J. Joy, Steven E. Mischler and Donald P. Tuchman. Laboratory and Field Performance of a Continuously Measuring Personal Respirable Dust Monitor . - Pittsburgh, PA: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2006 .-- 55 p. - (DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2006-145). There is a translation: PDF Wiki
- Kaptsov V.A., Chirkin A.V. On the effectiveness of personal respiratory protective equipment as a means of preventing disease (review) // Federal State Budgetary Health Institution “Russian Register of Potentially Hazardous Chemical and Biological Substances” of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare Toxicological Bulletin . - Moscow, 2018 .-- No. 2 (149) . - S. 2-6 . - ISSN 0869-7922 .
- A.V. Zharov, V.P. Shishkov et al. Pathological anatomy of farm animals. - M .: Kolos, 1995 .-- 543 p.
- Vorontsova E.I., Senkevich N.A., Bogolyubov V.M., Grigoryan E.A., Likhachev Yu. Pneumoconiosis // Big medical encyclopedia : in 30 tons / hl. ed. B.V. Petrovsky . - 3 ed. - Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia , 1982. - T. 19. Perelman - Pneumopathies . - 536 p. - 150,800 copies.
- L.V. Artyomova et al. Federal clinical guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of pneumoconiosis (rus.) // Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Scientific Research Institute of Occupational Medicine and Rospotrebnadzor Occupational Medicine and Industrial Ecology. - Moscow, 2016. - No. 1 . - S. 36-49 . - ISSN 1026-9428 .
- Pneumoconiosis / chairman. Yu.S. Osipov et al. ed. S.L. Kravets. - The Great Russian Encyclopedia (in 35 tons). - Moscow: Scientific Publishing House " Big Russian Encyclopedia ", 2014. - T. 26. Peru - Semitrailer. - S. 468. - 766 p. - 22,000 copies. - ISBN 978-5-85270-363-7 .
- Anthracosis of the lungs // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.
- Kovnatsky M.A. Clinic of pneumoconiosis / Ed. N. A. Grodzenchik. - L .: Medgiz . Leningra. Department, 1963 .-- 216 p. - (Library of the practitioner). - 7000 copies.