Baking powder - one of the main types of raw materials bakery and confectionery production, used to make the dough of a porous structure . Products from loosened dough are well baked, have a pleasant appearance, aroma, taste and better digestibility  .
- Biological disintegrators
Baker's yeast and yeast contained in bread dough and lactic acid bacteria produce carbon dioxide during the fermentation process of sugars contained in the dough  .
- Chemical leavening agents
Carbonates , bicarbonates and tartrates ( potassium hydrotartrate ) readily decompose when heated  . Chemical disintegrators are presented in the form of fine powders that are added to the flour. Included in the list of food additives .
Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) emits carbon dioxide when interacting with an acid ( citric acid, tartaric acid) or when heated. However, when heated alone, soda does not completely decompose  , which gives the product an unpleasant taste due to the formation of nonvolatile sodium salts  , therefore, it is recommended to add soda along with acid  to improve the taste of the products. In addition to its main property, soda gives the products a golden yellow shade  , which improves the appearance of the products, but if the soda content is exceeded, the products acquire a dark shade and an unpleasant taste  .
Ammonium carbonate ( ammonium carbonate) emits ammonia and carbon dioxide when heated. Compared to soda, it gives products a more porous structure  due to better gas-forming ability  . It is necessary to strictly observe the dosage of ammonium carbonate, as with the slightest excess of it, the product acquires an ammonia flavor  . Ammonium carbonate does not give baking an attractive yellow tint, but this property can be useful when it is necessary to preserve the natural color of the product (for example, when making mint cakes ). To achieve the best taste of products combine the properties of both leavening agents  , mixing 40% ammonium and 60% soda  .
“Baking powder”  or “dough baking powder” is the trade name of a multicomponent chemical baking powder. Approximate composition: sodium bicarbonate (soda), flour, citric acid.
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