Aleksandr Nikolayevich Poskrebyshev ( August 7, 1891 - January 3, 1965 ) - USSR state, political and party leader.
|Alexander Nikolaevich Poskrebyshev|
Alexander Poskrebyshev with daughters Galya and Natasha, 1940
|Predecessor||Ivan Pavlovich Tovstukha|
|Successor||Dmitry Nikolaevich Sukhanov|
|Birth||August 7, 1891 |
Assumption village, Sloboda district , Vyatka province , Russia
|Death||January 3, 1965 (73 years old)|
Moscow , USSR
|Mother||Nadezhda Efimovna Poskrebysheva|
|Spouse||Yadviga Ippolitovna Stankevich (1894-1937), Bronislava Solomonovna Metallikova-Poskrebysheva (1910-1941, Ekaterina Grigoryevna Poskrebysheva (Zimina) (1916)|
|Children||Galina Aleksandrovna Egorova-Poskrebysheva (1932-2005); Natalia Alexandrovna Poskrebysheva (1938-2006), Elena Alexandrovna Poskrebysheva (1942)|
|The consignment||CPSU ( 1917 - 1965 )|
|Type of army||Red army|
Personal assistant to Joseph Stalin (over 20 years).
Head of the special sector of the Central Committee ( Stalin Secretariat, 1928 - 1952 ).    Major General .
Member of the RSDLP (b) since March 1917 .
Alexander Poskrebyshev was born in the village of Uspensky, Sloboda district, Vyatka province . Mother - Nadezhda Efimovna. Father - Nikolai Vasilyevich Poskrebyshev. Brother - Soviet pilot Ivan Poskrebyshev, sisters - Olga and Alexandra. Russian by birth, great-great-grandmother of the Tatars-Kryashen .
At the end of the feldsher school, he was sent to work in Baranchu ( Ural ), where he was elected secretary of the party organization (RSDLP (b), 1917-1918). Subsequently, he worked in the political department of the Special Turkestan Army (1918-1919). In 1919-1921 - in Zlatoust : chairman of the district Military Revolutionary Committee, then - chairman of the executive committee of the county Council of workers and peasants' deputies. In the years 1921-1922. at party and Soviet work in Ufa .
In 1922 he was sent to Moscow to work in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), VKP (b), the CPSU : instructor, deputy manager of affairs, assistant secretary of the Central Committee Joseph Stalin : 
1923-1924 - Head of the Administration of the Central Committee of the RCP (b)
1924-1929 - Assistant Secretary General of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) - CPSU (B.)
In 1927, he simultaneously graduated from the Faculty of Economics and Law of Moscow State University
Since May 1929 - Deputy Head of the Secret Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.)
Since July 22, 1930 - Head of the Secret Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.)
Since March 10, 1934 - Head of the Special Sector of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.)
Since August 1935 - Head of the Office of the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, Joseph Stalin
In 1934, a candidate member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) (XVII Congress). Based on the theses formulated by Stalin , he writes the texts of the USSR Constitution (1936) and the Short History of the CPSU (B.) (1938) . In 1939, at the XVIII (and subsequently at the XIX) Congress, he was elected a member of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks (later) - the CPSU. Member of the Supreme Soviets of the RSFSR and the USSR (first, second and third convocation)    . Member of the Supreme Council of the BASSR 1-3 convocations.
During the war of 1941-1945 , he worked in the Stalin apparatus in Moscow. He participated in the development of military operations and the preparation of materials for the Tehran , Yalta and Potsdam conferences . He was directly involved in the Yalta and Potsdam conferences. At the same time, Alexander Poskrebyshev was awarded the title of Major General .
According to the testimony of his daughter Natalia Poskrebysheva :
“He worked for almost a day - at 5 in the morning he came home from work, and at 10-11 in the morning he left for work. He was talking about him a walking encyclopedia. He answered any question he was asked. ”
He had a phenomenal memory. He remembered all the phones by heart and never wrote them down   .
In 1947 he participated in the work of the Presidium of the January philosophical discussion  .
Since October 18, 1952 - Member of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs under the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee
Since December 1952 - Secretary of the Presidium and Bureau of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee
Until 1953 he continued to work with Stalin. Over the course of 25 years, he reported and filtered out practically all the information intended for transmission to Stalin, and he reported the most important information at the meeting of the Politburo (Presidium) of the CPSU (B) (CPSU Central Committee).
In 1953, he was accused of losing important state documents and suspended from work. Subsequently, it was reported that the incident was inspired and fabricated by Lavrenti Beria , and documents were found.
|By his nature, A. N. Poskrebyshev was a purposeful, decisive, and very kind person. At work, he was strict. At home - a sweet and kind person. He often repeated: “One must be kind, not kind”.|
|Vlasik and Poskrebyshev were like two props for the colossal activity that was not yet fully appreciated by Stalin, but they remained in the shadows. And with Poskrebyshev acted badly, worse with Vlasik.|
Artyom Sergeev . "Conversations about Stalin." 
As mentioned in one of the books of Sergey Khrushchev’s son, “in the early 1950s ... Stalin had the crazy idea: someone was illegally forwarding somewhere the information about the contents of the yet unpublished manuscript of the“ Economic Problems of Socialism ”... on charges of treason the permanent Stalinist secretary Poskrebyshev got into prison ”  .
After Stalin's death in 1953, at the XX CPSU Congress, Poskrebyshev, along with many other members of the CPSU, was sent to retire by Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev    .
From early childhood until the very last days, he was friends and talked with Alexander Bakulev .
Alexander Nikolayevich Poskrebyshev died on January 3, 1965 . He was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery .
From the memoirs of the secretary of the Politburo and personal secretary of Stalin Boris Bazhanov :
|At the end of 1923, this whole story with the opposition ends. She has one small funny consequence. Since the majority in the Central Committee cell was won by the opposition during the party discussion, the question of the perpetrators arises. First of all, the perfect mediocrity of the secretary of the Central Committee cell is clear. This is an old party beard, but an obvious blockhead. Kanner decides to replace him. But he still does not dare to carry out such an important thing as the choice of a new secretary of the Central Committee cell (in the cell there are almost fifteen hundred members — all the employees of the Central Committee apparatus are Communists), without the permission of Mehlis and mine. He poses a question before us. We are pondering. Mehlis sighs: “We are a party of workers; and in the cell of the Central Committee - all employees, clerks and bureaucrats, not a single worker; and here we would need a party orthodoxy worker from the machine tool, or at least manual labor. And what kind of manual labor is there in the Central Committee? ”To have fun, I say:“ Wait. There is one manual worker in the Central Committee. ” “It cannot be,” my interlocutors say. “You are making this up.” “I assure you that there is.” “Who is this blue bird?”|
I explain to them that when I worked for Molotov as the secretary of Izvestia TsK, the thin magazine I spoke about above, this magazine came in printed form from the printing house to the expedition of the Central Committee and from there it was distributed to party organizations. There was one worker on the expedition who packed all these bales, dragged them and sent them out. Small, bald and, it seems, not a fool, the last name is Poskrebyshev. With a general laugh, it was decided to call him. Poskrebyshev arrives without understanding anything: why and why the Stalin Secretariat may need him. We talk with him. The guy is not a fool and will be obedient to the extreme. Almost out of mischief, we decide to nominate him to the secretaries of the Central Committee cell (since this comes from the secretariat of Stalin, this passes instantly). Poskrebyshev turns out to be extremely obedient cell secretary and even too often runs to Kanner for directives. But the mischief of the Stalinist secretaries plays one more decisive role in Poskrebyshev’s career. In 1926, Stanislav Kossior became the fourth secretary of the Central Committee (at this time the number of secretaries increased to five). Usually a displaced nobleman pulls a long tail of people - whom he trusts, “his guys”. Kossior wants to show that he doesn’t have any group of his own and doesn’t want to create, and when they ask him who he wants to have as his assistant, he modestly replies that he doesn’t have any candidacy and that he would prefer someone to be indicated to him by the Stalin secretariat; Kossior - small and bald, Poskrebyshev - small and bald; they represent a rather comical couple. That is why Kanner, choking on laughter, offers Poskrebyshev's cell secretary as assistant to Kossior. What is being done.So the career of the future secretary of Stalin was created. He will move from the secretary of Kossior in 1928 to assistants to Tovstukha , after the death of Tovstukha in 1935 he will take his place as Stalin’s assistant and head of the Special Sector, and for eighteen years he will be Stalin's faithful batman, before whom the ministers and members of the Politburo will tremble. True, he will have the imprudence to marry the sister of his wife Sedov ( Trotsky's son). But when his wife was arrested in 1937 on the orders of a suspicious Stalin, he would not blink an eye and would continue to remain in Stalin’s presence until 1953. Only a few months before Stalin's death, he will be eliminated and in awe will wait for his execution. What kind of execution Stalin still will not produce. 
- Directives of the CPSU (b) on economic issues / comp. M. Saveliev , A. Poskrebyshev. - [2nd ed., Revised. and add.]. - M .: Sotseknig, 1931. - 878 p.
- The great power of Stalin's ideas (on the thirteenth volume of the writings of I. V. Stalin) / A. Poskrebyshev, P. Pospelov. - M. Gospolitizdat. 1951. - 63 p.
- TEACHER AND FRIEND OF HUMANITY. TRUE. December 21, 1939. No. 351 / A. Poskrebyshev, B. Dvinsky
- Four Orders of Lenin (1939; 1944; 11/06/1945; 08/06/1951)
- Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945" 
- Medal "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945" 
Relations with Stalin
The attitude of Stalin towards his comrades-in-arms, according to Erich Fromm , was openly sadistic  .
Alexander Poskrebyshev was one of Stalin's favorite victims  . Once, on New Year's Eve, Stalin decided to have some fun in this way: sitting at the table, he began to fold pieces of paper into small tubes and put them on Poskrebyshev's fingers. Then he lit these tubes instead of New Year's candles. Poskrebyshev wriggled and writhed in pain, but did not dare to drop these caps    .
According to the statement of Stalin’s daughter, Svetlana , Poskrebyshev himself was forced to submit an arrest warrant for his wife for Stalin’s signature. However, he tried to defend her. "Since the NKVD authorities consider it necessary to arrest your wife," said Stalin, "it should be so." And he signed a warrant. Seeing the expression on Poskrebyshev’s face, Stalin laughed: “What's the matter? Do you need a woman? We will find you. ” And, indeed, soon a young woman appeared in Poskrebyshev’s apartment, who said that she was ordered to run his farm   . ”
From 1919 to 1929 he was married to the Polish revolutionary Jadwig Ippolitovna Stankevich, who after a long illness ( tuberculosis ) died in 1937 (she was buried in the Novodevichy cemetery ). Some time after the divorce from his first wife, he married Bronislava Metallikova . Two daughters appear in this marriage - Galina (born March 29, 1932 from Metallikova’s marriage with a lawyer I. Itskov, apparently the girl was adopted by Poskrebyshev) and Natalya (January 7, 1938)   .
In March 1939, Bronislava Poskrebysheva was repressed on charges of having links with Trotsky and counter-revolutionary activities. There is an assumption that the main reason for the arrest was Beria’s desire to compromise Poskrebyshev and replace him with a person of his environment     . The arrest in 1952 of Nikolai Vlasik , the head of Stalin’s personal guard, and “knocking out” of him incriminating testimonies against Poskrebyshev were made on the orders of the Minister of State Security S. D. Ignatiev . The assumption of involvement in these actions by L.P. Beria cannot be considered justified, since from December 29, 1945, Beria was not associated with either the Ministry of Internal Affairs or the Ministry of State Security , but led the work of the Special Committee under the GKO / SNK / CM USSR with the rank of Deputy Chairman Council of People's Commissars / Council of Ministers of the USSR .
Despite Poskrebyshev’s attempt to achieve the release and rehabilitation of his wife, Bronislava was executed when the German army approached Moscow ( October 13, 1941 ). In 1957 she was rehabilitated (reburied at the Novodevichy cemetery ).
In 1941, Poskrebyshev married for the third time to Ekaterina Grigoryevna ( 1916 - 2013 , her maiden name is Zimina). From this marriage, in 1942, his third daughter, Elena   , was born.
In his free time, one of Poskrebyshev's favorite activities was fishing , which he worked with Alexander Bakulev , Ivan Papanin and Andrei Khrulev . Among other hobbies are tennis , towns and billiards , as well as reading fiction ( A. Zhid , R. Rolland , V. Kaverin and others). There is evidence of his interest in theater, as well as the fact that it was thanks to Poskrebyshev's interest in art that some writers, artists and theater workers escaped arrest and repression. Sergey Lemeshev , Ivan Moskvin , Ivan Kozlovsky were in his house   .
- The directors and actors of Soviet and Russian cinema tried to recreate the image of Poskrybyshev. The historical image in the films of Vladimir Petrov (“ The Battle of Stalingrad ”, actor Sergey Blinnikov ), Yuri Ozerov (“The Battle of Moscow” (actor Igor Kashintsev), “ Liberation ” and others), Evgenia Matveeva (“ Victory ”, actor Pavel Vinnik ) and Maxim Ivannikov (" Poker 45: Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt " (2010), actor Vladimir Chuprikov ).
- Actor Nikolai Leshchukov played A.N. Poskrebyshev in the series The Moscow Saga (2004), Second Spartak Uprising (2012), Chkalov (2012), Son of the Father of Peoples (2013). ), Orlova and Aleksandrov (2015).
- Big parents. Channel 1 of Russian Television, 2003. Interview with N. A. Poskrebysheva Archived on October 27, 2010.
- “Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar” by Simon Sebag Montefiore, Knopf Publishing Group, 2005 (translated into Russian)
- Handbook of the history of the CPSU (inaccessible link)
- Ermakova Lyudmila . My father wrote a constitution. Stalin. [Interview with Natalya Alexandrovna Poskrebysheva] // Muscovite. - 2000. - No. 3. - P. 11.
- January and June philosophical discussions
- Nikolai Sidorovich Vlasik [Page of the Chronos Internet project (World History on the Internet) ]
- Newspaper Gordon Boulevard | The son of the long-term leader of the USSR Sergey Khrushchev: "Mikoyan did not betray his father - he was always a man who, as in a joke, between the droplets ..."
- "Memoirs of the former Secretary of Stalin", 1930, B. Bazhanov
- Erich Fromm . The anatomy of human destructiveness. Holt Paperbacks 1973, p. 11, 189.
- Rappaport E. Anti-Judaism: A psychohistory. Chicago, 1975. P. 275-276.
- Medvedev R. A. Toward the Judgment of History: Genesis and Consequences of Stalinism. - New York, 1974.- S. 639.
- James Graham. (1994). Vessels of rage, engines of power. Aculeus Press. pp. 188-189.
- Alliluyeva S. Only one year. New York, 1969.S. 386.
- An end to silence: Uncensored opinion in the Soviet Union, from Roy Medvedev's underground magazine “Political diary / S. Cohen. NY, 1982. P. 79.
- Unknown Beria. Half a century after the execution. Documentary. Director: Vasily Pichul.
- Poskrebyshev, Alexander Nikolaevich at the Rodovod . Tree of ancestors and descendants