Severohalchamirnye languages (ternate-halmahera languages) - a family of Papuan languages , included in the fila of West Papuan languages . Languages are spoken in the north of Halmahera Island ( Moluccan Islands , Indonesia ) and in the nearest islands (Morotai, Ternate, Tidore, etc.) among the northern hairstyling peoples . The total number of speakers is 350 thousand people.
|Northern hairstyling languages|
|Number of carriers||350,000|
|West Papuan languages|
|3 groups and 1 language|
|Language group codes|
Within the family of northern hairdressing languages, 3 groups stand out:
- hairdressing group
- loda (loloda)
- tobelo (tobela)
- tobaru (tabaru)
- Modole (Madole)
- jailolo group
- violi (wai)
- ibu (extinct),
- island group
- tidore (tidor) .
- Tongue Western Makian (Makian-Loire).
The Kau and Isam languages are sometimes regarded as dialects of the Pagu language. The languages vaioli and sahu are sometimes combined into one language.
A distinctive feature of the family of northern hairdressing languages is the structural and typological unity of its constituent languages. The phonological system is characterized by a rather developed consonantism (4 rows of connectives, fricatives are more poorly represented, a developed system of sonants) and vocalism (usually five-phonemic, some languages, for example tobelo, are opposed by longitude and shortness). The transition s> h, the exchange l / r, and metathesis are characteristic (cf. Loda boloto ~ pag botolo). There are practically no clusters of consonants; at the end of the word, only a few languages allow consonants (pagu), in other languages the final consonant is lost (galela, ternate), or after it the same vowel appears before it (tobelo, modole, tobar, lod). There are regular phonetic correspondences, for example galela d (the so-called supradental d) ~ tobel ll (described as a sound intermediate between d and l) ~ modole, tobar d ~ ternate h ~ pagu j ~ sahu r; Sahu, modole '~ in other languages k.
The word order is typical for the Papuan languages: SOV.
The category of gender is characteristic of nouns: personal (denoting adults) and non-personal (denoting everything else) nouns are contrasted, nouns male / female are opposed among personal nouns. kind of. The presence of a category of gender is evidenced by the use of various personal (3 l. Units and plural), possessive and, in some languages, interrogative and demonstrative pronouns ; various forms of numerals 3, 4, in some languages also 2, 5, 6 with personal / non-personal nouns; distinction of articles before proper names and terms of consanguinity (for example, galela o Bisi - name of a man, o ngo Bisi - name of a woman); syntactic constructions with numerals (for personal nouns a special object indicator appears between a noun and a numeral). A way of expressing belonging to the Papuan languages is presented according to the scheme: “possessor - possessive pronoun (consistent with the possessor in kind) - object of possession”, for example, tobelo bereki ami tau 'old woman's house', literally - 'old woman is her house'.
Adjectives and Verbs
The adjective is conjugated like a verb and therefore sometimes does not stand out in a special part of speech. The verb has a developed conjugation system: intransitive verbs are consistent with the subject, and transitive verbs are also consistent with the object - by persons and numbers, within 3 persons - the gender is coordinated (personal husband / personal female / non-personal - in units, personal / non-personal - in many hours); in 1 liter many h. contrasted with exclusive and inclusive. coordination is carried out using prepositional particles of a pronominal character; the indicator of the object is placed after the indicator of the subject and can merge with it in one word. There is a category of collateral: the so-called direct transitional and indirect transitional forms are distinguished; in the first case, the object of the action is a direct addition to the proposal; in the second, the person (object) in whose interests the action is performed, for example, galela o tahu ta aka 'I am building a house', letters. 'house I am building it' (ta is the result of the merging of indicators to and a), but o tahu to mi gaka 'I am building her a house', letters. "I'm building her house." Indirectly transitional forms are formed from direct-transitional by various kinds of changes in the initial part of the verb root: the initial deaf audible ones are voiced, f changes to b; h, w and d are in ng; if the root begins with a vowel, then the prefix ng is added to it, sometimes g; all this allows you to reconstruct the nasal prefix (* ng-), with the help of which indirectly transitional forms from all verbs were originally formed. The verb system is also characterized by a productive way of forming transitive verbs from intransitive with the help of a prepositive object particle o and prefixing * ng-. From some intransitive verbs, transitive verbs (usually causatives) are also formed using the prepositive particle a or the prefix si- (hi-). The system of species-temporal contrasts is poorer than in most Papuan languages. Participial forms are absent. Word formation in the verb system is carried out more often with the help of prefixes; the most typical prefixes are si- (hi-) with causative or freventive (multiple) meaning, do- (locative prefix), tobo- (indicates a constant or long-term quality). In the formation of nouns from verbs, productive methods are stem reduction (often partial) and / or * ng prefixation. Complex words formed from a noun and an adjective are characteristic. The presence of postpositions with an almost complete absence of prepositions is characteristic; many postpositions can function as independent verbs denoting movement in the corresponding direction, or appear under the verbs as suffixes indicating the direction of action. Among the northern hahler languages, the most archaic stage of development is represented by galela and pagu (the latter retained the final consonants, etc.), the ternate underwent the greatest changes in its development, which, under the influence of the Austronesian languages, lost many of the essential features characterizing the northern hahler languages: the postposition of the verb ( in the ternate the addendum is placed after the verb), conjugation of adjectives, the presence of postpositions (in the ternate prepositions are used), the position of the possessor in the possessive construction (in the tern those - postposition).
A specific feature of the numeral system is the presence in some numerals of various forms, the use of which depends on the grammatical gender of nouns. The decimal number system has developed, apparently, under the influence of the Austronesian languages; it is assumed that it was preceded by a quaternary or quaternary system.
The vocabulary has a large number of borrowings from the Austronesian languages .
The study of northern hairstyling languages was begun in the second half of the XIX - beginning of XX centuries . Dutch missionaries A. Hüting, J. Fortgens, H.E. H. H. Ellen and others. In 1915 , the fundamental work of H. van der Vienna appeared, in which the non-Astronesian nature of the northern harem languages was proved and a hypothesis was put forward about their relationship with the Papuan languages. In the 50s. HK K. Ya. Kovan put forward a hypothesis about the kinship of the northern hairstyling languages with the languages of the Chandravasih peninsula (Wogelkop, New Guinea ).
- Member A. M. Severohalmacherskie languages - the problem of internal classification // Linguistic reconstruction and the ancient history of the East. Part 1. M., 1984. S. 110-115.
- Hueting A. Iets over de "Ternataansch-Halmaherasche" taalgroep. - Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Landen Volkenkunde, 1908, dl. 60.
- Veen H. van der. De Noord-Halmahera'se taalgroep tegenover de Austronesiese talen. Leiden, 1915.
- Cowan HKJ Prospects of a "Papuan" comparative linguistics. - Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Landen Volkenkunde, 1957, dl. 113.
- The Galela of Halmahera. Osaka, 1980.
- The Makian languages and their neighbors. Canberra, 1982.
- Language atlas of the Pacific area. Pt. 2. Canberra, 1983.
- Apituley C. (ao). Struktur bahasa Ternate. Jakarta, 1983.