The Nakh peoples are an ethno - linguistic community that in modern Caucasian studies unites the Ingushs ( Galgay ) and Chechens ( Nokhchy ) in Russia , as well as the Batsbiyans ( Batsbi ) and the Kistins ( Brush ) in Georgia . The ethnonym was introduced into scientific circulation by linguists to designate speakers of Nakh languages and could be invented by scientists, however, there is an opinion that it originated in the popular environment since ancient times. It also extends to the historical speakers of the Nakh languages - all local ethno-territorial groups ( tukhums / shahars , taips / surnames, Gars, neke, ca / surnames, etc.) that formed the above listed ethnic groups, and some separate ethnic groups - Akkins ( Akki ) , Malkhistins ( Melkhi ), Orstkheuys ( Orsthoi ) and others, who also became components in the ethnogenesis of modern Ingush and Chechens.
The terminology of Russian Caucasian studies before the 1917 revolution and in the first decades of the Soviet period had some differences from the modern one. A number of researchers united the entire ethno-linguistic community of Akkins , Batsbians , Ingushes , Kists , Orstkhoyans , Chechens, and others called cysts  , or Chechens [comm. 1]   . In modern science for this community use the term Nakh peoples and / or ethnic groups , ethnic groups . Since the last decades of the 20th century, the name of the Nakh peoples has sometimes been used synonymously with the Vainakhs / Weinachs . Both terms, introduced into scientific circulation by linguists  , and could be invented by scientists, however, there is an opinion that they originated in the popular environment since ancient times  . Since the 1970s, in the linguistic sense, it is more true to unite under the term Nakh peoples all native speakers of Nakh languages , and under Vainakhs only Chechens and Ingush people (native speakers of Vainakh languages ), excluding Batsbiys (native Batsbi languages ).
In the pre-revolutionary period, the researchers of Imperial Russia attributed the Nakhs (in the terminology of those years, the name Chechens were used for all Nahy-speaking ethnic groups) to the so-called Caucasian people of the East-Mountain group  .
Settlement and population
According to ESBE , before the Caucasian War (1817–1864), the Nakh ethnic groups and ethnic groups lived in the area between the Sunzha , Aksai and Caucasian mountains . After the war, and later, at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, they lived “peeking on Russians and Kumyks in the Terek region , east of Ossetia , between Terekom and the southern border of the region, from Daryal to the source of the r. Aktash ”  .
XVI — XVII centuries
Information about the finds in the XVI — XVII centuries is fragmentary given by Georgian sources and sources of Dagestan origin. More evidence is known from the documents of the Russian kingdom - reports ( old Russian formal replies ) from the governor of the city of Tersk to the Moscow Ambassadorial Order and the Prikaznoy Chamber of Astrakhan  . In Russian sources, various so-called mountain people and mountain lands are mentioned for different reasons and under various names. Sometimes there are whole lists of them, giving variants of names that are rather stable in documents of different years, thus outlining the circle of Caucasian tribal associations that were under the influence of the administration of the Tersk city and were in more or less permanent relations with them. It is the Nakh tribes and territories among the lists of mountain people and small towns that were first mentioned in the 1580s  .
|List witnessed in Russian-speaking sources of the Nakh ethnic groups,|
and their respective associations in later sources:
|Sources XVI — XVII centuries.|
(terminology in the Russian kingdom:
"Mountain people" and "mountain lands")
|Sources XIX century.|
(terminology in Russian
|Sources of the XX century.|
USSR: "ethnic groups")
( tukhums / shahars , taipus ,
Gary, neki and others.)
servicemen okochane 
|Ahotskaya land |
Okotskaya land / land 
Old Okokhi 
|Erokhan people ||Erokhan taverns ||Jerah ||Ingush Shahar|
|-||Indeel Land |
Kalkan people 
Ko Lkanians 
|Kalkan taverns |
Kalkas taverns 
Koh Lkan land 
Merezino people 
M and rezi 
|Merezinskaya land ||Meredzhoy ||merzhoytsy||orsthoy taip|
|Mi n Kizy |
|Michkis Land |
Michkiss taverns 
Mulkino People 
|Mulkinskaya land ||Mulkoy ||mulkkoytsy||Chechen tayp, not|
|-||Father's Land ||Changta surname ||Chantians||Chechen tukhum|
|Tshan people ||-||Chateau ||Shatois||Chechen tukhum|
|Shibuttskaya land / land |
Shibuttsky taverns 
|Shubut ||-||Chechen type, sometimes|
compared with the people of Shatoi
- For example, A. P. Berger “Chechnya and Chechens” ( Berger, 1859 , p. 80-83), B. K. Dalgat “Generic Life and Customary Law of Chechens and Ingushs” ( Dalgat B. K., 2008 (1892 —1894) , pp. 40-41).
- Bronevsky, 1823 , p. 151, 153, 155.
- Berger, 1991 (1859) , p. 3
- Dalgat B.K., 2008 (1892-1894) , p. 40
- Volkova, 1974 , p. 142
- Akhmadov, Sh. B., 2002 , p. 54.
- Chechens // ESBE. T. XXXVIII A , 1903 , p. 785
- Kusheva, 1963 , p. 59-60.
- Kusheva, 1963 , p. 60-61.
- Kusheva, 1963 , p. 62.
- Kusheva, 1963 , p. 63.
- Kusheva, 1963 , p. 64.
- Kusheva, 1963 , p. 64. 65.
- Kusheva, 1963 , p. 65.
- Berger A.P. Chechnya and Chechens: Instead of separating the fourth article // Caucasian calendar 1860 (leap year) = Caucasian calendar 1860 (leap year): annual right / published at the Main Directorate of the Governor of the Caucasus. - XV year. -Tiflis : printed from Vysochayshiy E.I. assent in the printing house of the Head Office of the Steward of the Caucasus, 1859. - S. I-VII, 1-140. - 425 s. : sludge and cards.
- Berger A.P. Chechnya and Chechens / Prep. text and foreword. Ya. Z. Akhmadov and I. B. Munaev, ed. E. A. Kupriyanov. - Gr. : Book, 1991 (1859). - 112 s. : 1 deposit card. - (modern reprint 1859). - 30 000 copies - BBK 63.5 . - ISBN 5-7666-0241-3 .
- Dalgat B. K. Tribal life and customary law of Chechens and Ingush: monograph . / Prepared. ed. and foreword W. B. Dalgat , afterword by Yu. Yu. Karpov, answer. ed. V.A. Tishkov . - RAS . Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology. N.N. Miklukho-Maklay . Institute of World Literature A. M. Gorky . - M .: IMLI RAN, 2008 (1892-1894). - 382 s. - (modern reprint of studies and materials 1892-1894 gg.). - 2000 copies - BBK 83.3 . - ISBN 978-5-9208-0307-8 .
- Shternberg L. Ya. Chechens : Art . // ESBE = Encyclopedic Dictionary: Encyclical . : in 86 (84 + 2 additional) tons. / Ed. K. K. Arsenyev and F. F. Petrushevskago . - SPb. : Publishing House of F. A. Brockhaus and I. A. Efron , 1903. - T. XXXVIII A (Man - Chuguevsky Regiment). - p. 785-786. - 483-958, 2, [20 b / n] with il., Maps. with.