Control theory is the science of the principles and methods of controlling various systems, processes and objects.
The theoretical basis of control theory are cybernetics and information theory .
The essence of management theory is to build on the basis of the analysis of this system, process or object of such an abstract model , which will allow to obtain an algorithm for managing them in dynamics - to achieve a system, process or object of a state that is required by management objectives.
Management theory, like any other science, has its own subject, function, goals, objectives and methods . At the same time, the methods of control theory differ quite widely depending on the field of application, in cybernetics, applied mathematics, computer programming , sociology , political science , law , and economics  .
Management theory is a developing theory, especially since the last decades of the 20th century, when its principles proved to be useful in solving computer simulation problems of various systems, processes and objects, which significantly increase the possibilities of automating human labor  .
The first self- guided device was built by Ktezibiy from Alexandria (approximately 250 BC ). His water clock used siphon as a water flow regulator. Prior to this invention, it was believed that only living things were able to modify their behavior in response to changes in the environment.
The next step in the development of self-regulating feedback control systems was the Cornelius Drebbel thermostat (1572—1633), and the centrifugal regulator of the James Watt steam engine (1736—1819).
The mathematical theory of sustainable systems with feedback was developed in the XIX century .
In connection with the development of steam engines, regulators were required, which could automatically maintain the steady state of their operation. The universality of the mathematical methods obtained in this theory has translated it into the field of sciences that are engaged in the study of abstract mathematical objects, and not their specific technical implementations.
Alexander Mikhailovich Lyapunov , the author of the classical theory of the stability of motion (1892)  , can be considered the ancestor of the direct “ mathematical control theory ”.
Definition and objectives
Cybernetics has established that control is inherent only in system objects. They are characterized by a decrease in entropy , focus on streamlining the system.
The management process can be divided into several stages:
- Collection and processing of information.
- Analysis, systematization, synthesis.
- Setting goals on this basis. The choice of management method, the forecast.
- The implementation of the selected control method.
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of the selected method of control ( feedback ).
The ultimate goal of control theory is universalization, which means consistency, optimization, and the greatest efficiency in the functioning of systems.
The management methods considered by the theory of control of technical systems and other objects are based on three fundamental principles:
- The principle of open (software) control,
- Compensation principle (perturbation control) - such control systems are used with a limited range of changes in the external environment, depending on the completeness of information about the external environment of the perturbation control system may have an important property: perturbation control with complete information provides full compensation for the external environment. Systems in which full compensation is achieved are called invariant . In them, the control action enters the control object simultaneously with the influence of the external environment, neutralizing it. However, in open systems it is difficult to foresee all possible disturbances. In addition, the functional dependencies between perturbing and control actions may not be known. Therefore, perturbation control with incomplete information leads to an accumulation of errors.
- Feedback principle.
Management can be divided into two types:
- spontaneous: the impact occurs as a result of interaction of the subjects (synergetic management);
- conscious: the planned impact of the object (hierarchical management).
In hierarchical control, the goal of the system’s functioning is set by its super-system.
Examples of modern management methods :
- Nonlinear control
- Catastrophe Theory
- Adaptive management
- Build optimal robust controls
- Game methods in management
- Intellectual management
Implementing the chosen control method
When introducing something new, there is always a predisposition to the emergence of a revolutionary situation, when "the tops cannot manage in a new way, and the lower classes do not want to live in the old way." Therefore, an algorithm of the transition process should also be developed, which would ensure a conflict-free transition of systems to a new type of functioning for them.
The following are the most common approaches to control theory:
- The process approach is based on the idea of the existence of some universal management functions.
- The system approach was formed on the basis of a general theory of systems: a system is a kind of integrity consisting of interdependent subsystems, each of which contributes to the functioning of the whole.
- The situational approach considers any organization as an open system, constantly interacting with the external environment, therefore, the main reasons for what is happening inside the organization should be sought outside of it, that is, in the situation in which it actually functions.
- The universal approach was formed on the basis of the scientific school of universology, the theory of universal control, the theory of transient processes, the theory of relativity of consciousness, and considers any system as a whole of its vertical and horizontal connections. On the other hand, in the bulletin " In Defense of Science ", published by the Commission on Combating Pseudoscience and Falsification of Scientific Research at the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences , uniology is characterized as pseudoscience  .
- Substrate approach based on structural optimization of the strategy and decisions made by identifying substrates (key points of optimization) in significant classes of the informational context of the management situation. The process of building such a structural-substrate-optimal strategy is called structural optimization .
- Operations research
- Optimal control
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... there are dozens of real pseudoscience, such as astrology and palmistry, extrasensory and parapsychology, cryptobiology and bioenergy, bioresonance and iridodiagnostics, creationism and telegonia, ufology and paleo-astronautics, eniology and dianetics, numerology and sociology . dowsing and contacting, dermatoglyphic testing and geopathic zones, geopolitics and the lunar conspiracy, the theory of ether and torsion fields, memory of water and wave genetics
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