Nikolaus Lenau ( German: Nikolaus Lenau , actually Nikolaus Franz Nimbbs , edler von Strehlenau ; August 13, 1802 , Chadat, Banat , Kingdom of Hungary as part of the Habsburg Monarchy (now , Timish County, Romania ) - August 22, 1850 , Oberdebling, now the district of Vienna ) is an Austrian romantic poet.
|him. Nikolaus Lenau|
|Birth name||Nicolaus Franz Nimbsch ( since 1820: edler von Strehlenau)|
|Date of Birth|
|Place of Birth||Chadat, Banat , Kingdom of Hungary (now: Lenauheim , Timis County, Romania )|
|Date of death|
|Place of death|
|Language of Works|
From the family of an official. In 1807 he lost his father, his mother remarried (died in 1829 ). He studied law and medicine in Vienna and Bratislava , he did not finish the course anywhere. In 1831 he came to Stuttgart , met L. Uland , Gustav Schwab . Finding no place for himself, he left for America in 1832 , but did not take root there, and in 1833 returned to Europe, lived in Vienna and Stuttgart. According to some experts, the Austrian writer Ferdinand Kurnberger's novel Der Amerika-Müde reflects, in particular, Lenau’s disappointment in America, but there is no documented evidence of this  .
Lenau was long and hopelessly in love with his friend's wife. He developed a mental illness, in 1844 he was placed in a psychiatric hospital, where he died.
Lenau's grave is located in Waidling on the slope of Mount Kalenberg  .
He made his debut in print only in 1827 , although he wrote poetry from his youth. It belongs, along with Byron and Leopardi , to the greatest poets of the “world tribulation”. Contributed to the development of the images of Faust and Don Juan .
- Der Unbeständige ( 1822 )
- Polenlieder ( 1835 )
- Faust , poem ( 1836 )
- Savonarola , poem ( 1837 )
- In der Neujahrsnacht ( 1840 )
- Die Albigenser , poem ( 1842 )
- Waldlieder ( 1843 )
- Blick in den Strom ( 1844 )
- Eitel nichts! ( 1844 )
- Don Juan , dramatic poem ( 1844 , not complete)
In 1854, Lenau's biography appeared, written by his friend Ludwig August Frankl (reprinted in 1885 ), in 1855 a 4-volume collected works of Lenau, compiled by Anastasius Grün , appeared , in 1891 Frankl published the diaries and letters of the poet. Today, Lenau is called Austria's greatest lyricist. Stockaura is considered the city of Lenau, in the wooded surroundings of which the poet loved to roam. The street and square in Vienna are named after him.
Songs written by Lenau were written by Felix Mendelssohn , Fanny Mendelssohn , Robert Schumann , Franz Liszt , Hugo Wolf , Richard Strauss , Arnold Schoenberg , Alban Berg , Anton Rubinstein , Nikolai Metner , Charles Ives , Robert Franz and other composers.
Based on Lenau's poems, Marcel L'Erbier directed the film Don Juan and Faust ( 1922 ). The life of Lenau is dedicated to Peter Hertling's novel Nimbus ( 1964 ).
The quatrain from Lenau's poem “Dein Bild” served as an epigraph to the book of B. L. Pasternak “My sister is life” .
Lenau in Russian
Lenau's poems were translated into Russian by Tyutchev , Fet , Weinberg , Pleshcheyev , Apukhtin , Voloshin , Lunacharsky , Bryusov , Balmont , Parnach , Levik , etc.
- German National Library , Berlin State Library , Bavarian State Library , etc. Record # 118571508 // General regulatory control (GND)
- Rubinova E. Ya. Lenau // Brief Literary Encyclopedia
- BNF identifier : Open Data Platform
- Encyclopædia Britannica
- Lenau Nikolaus // Great Soviet Encyclopedia : [in 30 vol.]
- George A. Mulfinger: Ferdinand Kürnberger's Roman “Der Amerikamüde”, dessen Quellen und Verhältnis zu Lenaus Amerikareise , Philadelphia 1903
- Vienna // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary : in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1892. - T. VIIa. - S. 621-627.
- Lenau N. Poems. Jan ижižka. M.: State Publishing House of Fiction, 1956. 206 p.
- Lenau N. Faust / Per. A. G. Ginetsinsky. SPb., 1999.
- Lenau N. Savonarola / Per. with him. V. Kolesnikov, S. Orlova. M., 2003.
- Lunacharsky A.V. Lenau and his philosophical poems // Lunacharsky A.V. Collected Works. T. 5.M., 1965.S. 7–82.