Salem   ( eng. Salem , ˈseɪləm ) is a city in the northwestern United States , the administrative center of Oregon . The population of 154.6 thousand people ( 2010 data).
|County||Marion , Regiment|
|Chapter||Anna M. Peterson|
|History and Geography|
|Center height||46.7 m|
|Timezone||UTC −8 , summer UTC − 7|
|Population||154,637 people ( 2010 )|
|Postal codes||97301-97312, 97314, 97317|
The territory of present Oregon has been inhabited since at least the 10th millennium BC. By the time of the first visits to these lands by the whites (XVIII century) there lived tribes of hunters, fishers and gatherers.
The Indians , who originally inhabited the Salem region, called it “Chimikiti,” which meant “a resting place.” The newly built mission of the Methodist Church (1840) was also called Chimikiti, but more often it was simply called Mill, as it stood on Mill Stream. After the founding of the methodologists of the Oregon Institute (1842), the area became known as the Institute. When the institute was dissolved in 1844, its former trustees decided to establish a new city on the institute grounds. It is still not known exactly who proposed the current name. Key hypotheses: David Leslie (from Salem, Massachusetts ) or William Wilson (who drew up the city’s construction plan).
The name is borrowed from the Bible , where in translations of ( Christian ) into Russian it is transmitted as Salim (there is also a translation where the name is transmitted as Salem). In the Jewish translations of the Tanakh (the more ancient part of the Bible, which is recognized as sacred in Judaism, and in Christianity is called the Old Testament ), the name is referred to as Chalem. This is an ancient city in Canaan : "... and Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine, he was a priest of the Most High God ..." ( Eng. "And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God. ") ( Genesis 14:18). It is later identified with Jerusalem (Jerusalem) (“And there was His dwelling in Salim and his abode in Zion,” in “Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion.”, Psalm 75, verse 3 ( eng. 76 : 2); Zion is a mountain (hill) in Jerusalem). The name is based on the same root as the Hebrew word translated “peace” (meaning “calm”). Wed in the New Testament : "For Melchizedek, ... - ... the king of Salim, that is, the king of the world ..." ( Eng. "For ... Melchisedec ... being ... King of Salem, which is, King of peace ...") ( Hebrews , 7 : 1-2)  .
Salem was chosen as the state capital in 1851. In the same year, the construction of the state capitol began . The capitol was completed in October 1855, but in December it was completely destroyed by fire. The new capitol was completed in 1876 in the same place, and in 1893 it was decorated with an original copper dome. In April 1935, the fate of the previous one befell the second capitol. The current capitol was built in 1938.
Geography and climate
Salem is located in the central part of the Willamette Valley , in the districts of Marion and Polk . The 45th parallel of northern latitude passes through the city.
According to the US Census Bureau , the total area of the city is 120 km², of which 118.4 km² is land and 1.6 km² (1.35%) is water.
Within the city there are many rather steep hills of volcanic origin, as a result of which the height of various regions above sea level ranges from 37 to 240 meters. Many small rivers and streams flow through the territory of Salem.
Salem has a maritime climate on the west coast with distinctive Mediterranean climate. Most precipitation falls from November to March. The city is located about 64 km south of Portland , but has an average minimum temperature lower than in Portland (13.6 ° C)  .
|Absolute maximum, ° C||18||22||25||31||37||40||41||42||40||33||22||20||42|
|Average maximum, ° C||7||ten||12||sixteen||20||23||27||27||25||17||eleven||eight||17|
|Average temperature, ° C||four||6||7||ten||13||sixteen||nineteen||nineteen||sixteen||eleven||7||five||eleven|
|Average minimum ° C||one||one||2||3||6||eight||ten||ten||eight||five||2||one||five|
|Absolute minimum, ° C||−23||−20||−11||−5||−3||0||2||2||−3||−5||−12||−24||−24|
|Precipitation rate, mm||160||120||100||60||50||thirty||ten||ten||thirty||80||150||170||1010|
According to the census in 2000  , 136 924 people lived in the city, there were 50 676 households and 32 331 families. The population density was 1,156.1 people per km². The number of residential buildings was 53,817 with an average density of 454.4 per km². The division into races was: 83.07% of whites , 1.28% of African Americans, 1.51% of Indians , 2.41% of Asians, 0.47% of people from Oceania, 7.9% of other races, and 3.36% indicated two or more races. 14.59% of the population are Latino.
Of the 50,676 households, 32.4% had children under the age of 18, 47.7% were married and lived together, 11.6% had a woman without a husband as the head of the household, and 36.2% were not related. 28.3% of households consisted of one person and 10.5% consisted of one person aged 65 years or older. The average household size was 2.53 people; the average family size was 3.1 people.
Age composition of the population: 25.4% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24 years old, 30.1% from 25 to 44 years old, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 12.4% 65 years or older. The average age was 34 years. For every 100 females there are 100.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 99.5 males.
The average household income was $ 38,881 a year, the average household income was $ 46,409. Men had an average income of $ 34,746, women $ 26,789. The average annual per capita income of the city was $ 19,141. About 10.5% of families and 15% of the population were below the poverty line , of which 20.2% were under the age of 18 years and 7.1% were 65 years of age or older.
The following is the dynamics of the population of the city   .
State authorities at various levels are Salem's largest employers, but the city also serves as a shopping center for the surrounding agricultural territories and is an important center of the food industry.
In an effort to diversify its economic base, the city administration attracted a number of electronics companies in 1990. In November 2003, Sumco , the largest of these companies, announced that it would close two silicon wafer plants at the end of 2004, eliminate 620 jobs and transfer production to other plants.
Salem's largest private employer is a city hospital with over 2,700 employees. Others include the Mountain Spirit Casino west of Salem (owned by the Oregon Indian Confederation), T-Mobile's call center, GE Security , NORPAC Foods , Sanyo , University of Vilamet.
Salem has the Oregon Department of Correctional Services headquarters and four state correctional facilities, including the only state security prison.
The closest major regular airport to Salem is Portland .
The city has a train station through which the Amtrak Los Angeles - Seattle train runs daily. Also, a train of the same company Vancouver - Eugene passes through the city several times a day.
Interstate I-5 passes through Salem. Intercity bus services are provided by CARTS and Greyhound Lines .
Public transport is represented by 22 bus routes and 2 express bus routes (operated by Salem-Keizer Transit ).
- Republic of Korea : Gimhae
- Japan : Kawagoe
Willamet-Queen on the Willamette River
First United Methodist Church in the City Center
Marion County Court
Alleys in the city center
Surroundings in South Salem in the Snow
Salem Autumn Street
- United States of America // Atlas of the World / comp. and preparation. to the ed. PKO "Cartography" in 2009; ch. ed. G.V. Pozdnyak . - M .: PKO "Cartography": Onyx, 2010. - S. 168-169. - ISBN 978-5-85120-295-7 (Cartography). - ISBN 978-5-488-02609-4 (Onyx).
- Salem // Dictionary of geographical names of foreign countries / resp. ed. A.M. Komkov . - 3rd ed., Revised. and add. - M .: Nedra , 1986.- S. 328.
- The name Salim, mentioned in the Gospel of John (“And John also baptized at Aenon, near Salim, because there was a lot of water; and they came (were) and were baptized,” 3:23; in this writing in this place in all Russians translations), in English is not written Salem, but Salim.
- Portland International Airport, Multnomah County, Oregon, USA . WorldClimate.com. Date of treatment May 8, 2010. Archived March 10, 2012.
- American FactFinder US Census Bureau
- Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western US Cities & Towns, 1850-1990 . Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 215.
- Subcounty population estimates: Oregon 2000-2007 (CSV). United States Census Bureau, Population Division (March 18, 2009). Date of treatment May 8, 2010. Archived May 13, 2011.